EU Forum


The CSDP train leaves the station. So what?

07 Dec 2017 - 16:14
Source: Wikmedia Commons - NL Army Days

Anyone who has recently attended a security or defence conference is likely to have heard EU officials claim that more has been achieved in the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) in the last 12 months than in the previous 12 years. Following last month’s notification to the Council on Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO), a development described by High Representative Federica Mogherini as “probably the most important moment for European defence in decades,” she or he is also likely to have heard variations on the EU’s favourite metaphor: the defence train has left the station.

Certainly, there has been substantial movement on defence in the EU. The launch of three internal initiatives – PESCO, the Coordinated Annual Review of Defence (CARD) under the auspices of the European Defence Agency (EDA), and the Commission’s European Defence Action Plan (EDAP), which includes through the European Defence Fund (EDF) the prospect of EU funding for defence for the first time – together with a joint agreement at NATO’s Warsaw Summit on EU-NATO relations offer opportunities for real progress.

Praise for Estonia’s Presidency

Estonia, which currently holds the Presidency of the Council of the EU, has been justifiably praised for its defence agenda. Thrust into the driving seat six months early by the UK’s withdrawal from the rota, Estonia has shrewdly cast its Presidency as one in which key decisions would be taken. And in this, assisted by a refreshed Franco-German motor to drive things forward, the Estonians can claim success. In addition to the formal PESCO decision, which should be taken by the Council this month alongside the agreement of the first list of PESCO projects, the Estonian Presidency’s achievements are also likely to include the expansion of the Athena mechanism for financing the common costs of EU operations, and a Council position on the proposed regulation establishing the European Defence Industrial Development Programme.

The road to real progress in European defence

However, real progress in European defence will not be made in the taking of decisions, but in their implementation (which Estonia can happily leave in the hands of later Presidencies). The fact remains that despite the fanfares, the EU is not measurably closer to being able to meet its military level of ambition than it was when the Global Strategy was launched 18 months ago. The key requirement is for more European military capability. This in turn calls for more and better defence spending by the member states, as well as more cooperation between them. While cooperation is the watchword of the EU’s new defence initiatives, only the coming years will reveal whether these initiatives can motivate the member states to work more closely together; in other words, whether the EU can add value in a field in which accomplishments have been limited and largely due to bi- or mini-lateral, rather than EU-wide, arrangements.

On the face of it, the EU has not made a good start. The PESCO notification text is weak and has been roundly, and rightly, criticised by influential commentators. In the run-up to the launch of PESCO, much has been made of its legally binding nature, but this is only of value if the member states agree to be bound by things that will make a difference. A legally binding lowest common denominator agreement will be little, if at all, better than the entirely voluntary one that exists today.

PESCO: a starting point that can be built upon?

On the other hand, it is fair to note that the PESCO agreement is only a framework – a starting point that can be built upon. In managing the expectations of its stakeholders, the EU has done itself few favours in claiming success when all it is delivering is process. The list of PESCO projects to be published this month will offer better indications of PESCO’s prospects. To be credible, this list will need to contain new commitments, not just the rebadging of existing projects, and projects that will deliver capability to meet the EU’s long-recognised capability shortfalls, not just projects that enhance operational cooperation. Regrettably, early indications are that the projects to be put to the December Council will only partially meet these criteria.

It should also be recalled that PESCO is part of a package. There is a great deal of sense in the idea that requirements are identified by the EDA’s Capability Development Plan, that PESCO provides a framework for delivery of these requirements, that the EDF serves as financial underpinning, and that CARD provides a forum for review and corrective action.

Another measure of success, then, will be the extent to which this package works together. The EU institutions insist that cooperation among themselves is excellent, but the tendency of organisations to advance and protect their own interests at the expense of the greater good is well-documented. As an example, while it might have been sensible for an exclusive PESCO containing just a handful of member states to conduct a dedicated review process, it is questionable that a PESCO of (probably) 25 member states should require both an annual review of national implementation plans inside PESCO and a CARD process outside it. Some attention will need to be paid to this and other points at which the institutions rub against each other.

There will be other key tests of implementation too, for example the extent to which the review processes will be able to spotlight the performance of individual member states, rather than the collective performance that less enthusiastic individual states can hide behind (note here that the only quantified commitments in the PESCO notification are annotated “collective benchmark”) and the degree to which the industrial interests of the smaller member states can be satisfied by the EDAP. Frustratingly, 19 years since the EU defence dimension was launched at St Malo, it is still too early to know if this venture can succeed.

Towards a meaningful destination

It does not matter if the defence train has left the station. What matters is that those on board find the will to ensure it reaches a meaningful destination soon, rather than endlessly circling the same tracks.

Tony Lawrence is a Research Fellow at the International Centre for Defence and Security, Tallinn, Estonia. The views expressed here are his own.


Load comments

Tue, 12/22/2020 - 09:10


сигареты пондс [url=]как отличить паленый эйкьюди от оригинала[/url]
электронная сигарета в гвардейске [url=]эйкьюди как отличить паль[/url]

ben SNEY dan
Fri, 12/25/2020 - 03:48


Buy Driver’s License Online/Buy Real And Fake Documents online/Buy USA driver’s license/DRIVING LICENSE/Apply For Real And Fake Passport/Buy Fake Driver’s License for sale/FAKE DOCUMENTS ONLINE/Buy SSN for sale/

[u] Welcome to Fast Easy Docs Online

We produce genuine registered documents which are legally used and we also produce Fake or Novelty documents which are just use for camouflage and can not be use legally, these types of document (Fake Documents) are not important so we produce on high demand and order, We also work with agents from top embassies within the world who have all our clients information processed from within and have everything authenticated in the supposed database system. So everything we do regarding the production of a Genuine Passport, Drivers License, SSN, ID Cards, Birth Certificate, Visa, PR, Diplomas and many other documents are genuine and all the real documents that can be legally used.

1) Real documents are registered in the national database and contain all the applicant’s vital information.
2) Genuine documents comply with all the legal requirements imposed by authorities. They can be used for border crossings and other cases involving scanning procedures.
4) With real ID cards or driver’s licenses, you can apply for renewal when needed.
5) Genuine documents will cost more because they need to be registered according to the official requirements.
6) With all registration issues in mind, production of real documents takes longer.

1) Fake documents are not registered in any system. They are issued to a person for camouflage purposes only.
2) Although they do look like government-issued ones, false documents shall not be scanned by
data-reading machines as your personal information is not going to show up.
3) You cannot apply for renewal if your ID card or driver’s license hasn’t been registered previously.
4) As no paperwork is required for producing fake documents, they are priced much lower.
5) In most cases, your false document will be ready in a matter of days

WhatsApp: ……… + 1 (321) 999 1792

Email :…………… [email protected]

General Support: [email protected]

Buy Social Security Number Card

Buy real driving license UK

Buy EU driving license without test

Quickest way to get driving license

Fake driving license

Buy real driver’s license

Buy fake English driving license

Buy genuine driving license

Buy driving license DVLA

Fake drivers license online

Fake driving license

Get bike license

Fastest way to get a full UK driving license

Buy fake id online

Scan able fake id

Birth certificate online

Apply for birth certificate online

I’ve lost my birth certificate

Full birth certificate UK

how do I get a copy of my birth certificate UK

Instant bachelor’s degree

Buy degree from any university

Buy a degree/Verifiable degree

Fake degree from real university

Fake college diploma maker

Buy a degree from a real university

Fake diploma high school

Fake diplomas that look real

Fake certificates online

Fake certificate maker

Best fake money

Where can I Buy Real And Fake Driver’s License Online

Buy Driver’s License Online

Buy 100% Fake Bank Notes


Buy British passport online

Buy real ID card online

Buy Fake Driver’s License

Buy German Passport online


Buy US Passport online

Buy ID Card Online

Buy registered documents online

Buy real documents online

Buy registered passports online

Buy documents online

Buy German passport online

Buy Danish passport


Buy US passport-online

Buy Swedish passport-online

Buy Japanese passport-online

Buy Social Security Number Card

Buy Real And Fake Documents Online
Buy Passports online
Buy fake documents online
Where can I buy fake passport
Buy real fake passports
Buy real and fake passport online

Genuine passports for sale
Purchase passport online
Buy UK driving license online

Easy Documents Online

passports online/

Counterfeit Documents

Real passport for sale/

Buy real ID

Buy Uk passport

Fake Uk driving license

False Canadian passport

Buy US fake ID card online

Buy novelty USA documents

Fake French passport online

Buy Real & Fake Documents

Buy Fake Documents Online


‎Buy Legit Passports Online

BUY Real & Fake Documents Online That You Can Use To Travel
Best buy fake documents online
buy fake documents online
Passport online
Fake Passports Online
Buy documents online
Fake documents online free
Buy passport online
Buy real fake documents review
Valid documents online
Buy new identity documents
Buy real and fake passport online
Buy real documents online
Buy real and fake passport online
Buy real fake documents
Bake documents for sale
Buy fake passport online
Buy fake currency online buy-documents-online

Buy Real And Fake Documents Online
Buy fake documents online
Where can I buy fake passport,
Buy real fake passports
Buy real and fake passport online
Fake passport online maker,
Genuine passports for sale
Purchase passport online
Buy UK driving license online
Buy real driving license UK
Buy EU driving license without test
Quickest way to get driving license
Fake Bulgarian driving license
Buy real driver’s license
Buy fake English driving license
Buy genuine driving license
Buy driving license DVLA,
fake driving license
Fake driver’s license
Quickest and easiest way to get bike license
Fastest way to get a full UK driving license
Buy fake id online
Scan able fake id
Fake id maker online
Birth certificate online
Apply for birth certificate online
I’ve lost my birth certificate
Birth certificate prices,
WhatsApp: ……… + 1 (321) 999 1792

Email: …………… [email protected]

General Support: [email protected]

Our employees create branded furnishings , and at the same time we pay special preference to requirements your safety and functional of opportunities. Work is underway with by customer on of all stages commit multilateral analysis location rooms ,produce advance counts . In the event of appearances questions .
$2000 kitchen remodel difficult action, in case is all this perform on their own
In the production company Sole Partnership PMINY Lower East Side involved trained specialists, they much understand about Major kitchen remodel.
The Organization renders high-quality Retro kitchen remodel by affordable rates . Specialists with great experience work can help whole upgrade in a matter of days . The price depends on cost of finishing materials .

Any dwelling apartments, houses, cottages or other housing Eltingville unique and contains personal high-functional load. All this mostly to be relevant to modern kitchens.

Granite kitchen renovations Riverdale - [url=]kitchen renovation nyc[/url]

<b>New-York Escort: <a href=>female happy ending story</a></b>

Good day! We those who make your life much easier . We are a company that gives you massage .

Distinctive quality our tantric salon is not an enforced setting. We promote groups in a social network to social group profile in social network.
Advise for you try whatever type massage techniques today. Our employees looking forward to you personally in our salon.

Cinque Technologies
Tue, 12/29/2020 - 13:31


Cinque Pay is an exceedingly beneficial unified payment platform for busy entrepreneurs like me. It helps me keep all my financial transactions simple and sorted. Cinque Pay offers immediate payment instructions using which I can perform all my financial operations promptly, without any hassle. No more rushing to the bank for every delayed financial transaction. Visit:

How are things?.
We are busy in Borough Park big 12 years, during this period we working only female employees , on Grass mowing and Housekeeping maid service. Maid service in my area will maintain order and cleanliness in living room by generally established condition. In our headquarters in oll qualified Maid service at home , who do Cleaning cleaning of any complexity and execute it fast and good. When it comes to about a large private house, our company we will provide client required for you number staff. For you we offer as experienced personnel , but on the other hand affordable prices for Maid service at home в Forest Hills. To place an order Cleaning of the apartment and Housemaid recommend you personally go to site in Chinatown. The Tidy up Store cleaning с Housemaid every time more economical in Park Slope

We offer specialist [url=]maid to clean[/url] for personal customers. Utilizing European devices and certified tools, we accomplish maximum outcomes and also supply cleaning quickly.

Our pleasant team uses you to obtain acquainted with positive regards to teamwork for corporate customers. We sensibly approach our tasks, tidy making use of professional cleansing products and also specific equipment. Our workers are educated, have clinical publications and recognize with the nuances of eliminating complicated and also hard-to-remove dust from surfaces.

Add new comment

Your name: Anonymous

Restricted HTML

  • Allowed HTML tags: <a href hreflang> <em> <strong> <cite> <blockquote cite> <code> <ul type> <ol start type> <li> <dl> <dt> <dd> <h2 id> <h3 id> <h4 id> <h5 id> <h6 id>
  • Lines and paragraphs break automatically.
  • Web page addresses and email addresses turn into links automatically.

Plain text

  • No HTML tags allowed.
  • Lines and paragraphs break automatically.
  • Web page addresses and email addresses turn into links automatically.