EU Forum

Security

The CSDP train leaves the station. So what?

07 Dec 2017 - 16:14
Source: Wikmedia Commons - NL Army Days

Anyone who has recently attended a security or defence conference is likely to have heard EU officials claim that more has been achieved in the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) in the last 12 months than in the previous 12 years. Following last month’s notification to the Council on Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO), a development described by High Representative Federica Mogherini as “probably the most important moment for European defence in decades,” she or he is also likely to have heard variations on the EU’s favourite metaphor: the defence train has left the station.

Certainly, there has been substantial movement on defence in the EU. The launch of three internal initiatives – PESCO, the Coordinated Annual Review of Defence (CARD) under the auspices of the European Defence Agency (EDA), and the Commission’s European Defence Action Plan (EDAP), which includes through the European Defence Fund (EDF) the prospect of EU funding for defence for the first time – together with a joint agreement at NATO’s Warsaw Summit on EU-NATO relations offer opportunities for real progress.

Praise for Estonia’s Presidency

Estonia, which currently holds the Presidency of the Council of the EU, has been justifiably praised for its defence agenda. Thrust into the driving seat six months early by the UK’s withdrawal from the rota, Estonia has shrewdly cast its Presidency as one in which key decisions would be taken. And in this, assisted by a refreshed Franco-German motor to drive things forward, the Estonians can claim success. In addition to the formal PESCO decision, which should be taken by the Council this month alongside the agreement of the first list of PESCO projects, the Estonian Presidency’s achievements are also likely to include the expansion of the Athena mechanism for financing the common costs of EU operations, and a Council position on the proposed regulation establishing the European Defence Industrial Development Programme.

The road to real progress in European defence

However, real progress in European defence will not be made in the taking of decisions, but in their implementation (which Estonia can happily leave in the hands of later Presidencies). The fact remains that despite the fanfares, the EU is not measurably closer to being able to meet its military level of ambition than it was when the Global Strategy was launched 18 months ago. The key requirement is for more European military capability. This in turn calls for more and better defence spending by the member states, as well as more cooperation between them. While cooperation is the watchword of the EU’s new defence initiatives, only the coming years will reveal whether these initiatives can motivate the member states to work more closely together; in other words, whether the EU can add value in a field in which accomplishments have been limited and largely due to bi- or mini-lateral, rather than EU-wide, arrangements.

On the face of it, the EU has not made a good start. The PESCO notification text is weak and has been roundly, and rightly, criticised by influential commentators. In the run-up to the launch of PESCO, much has been made of its legally binding nature, but this is only of value if the member states agree to be bound by things that will make a difference. A legally binding lowest common denominator agreement will be little, if at all, better than the entirely voluntary one that exists today.

PESCO: a starting point that can be built upon?

On the other hand, it is fair to note that the PESCO agreement is only a framework – a starting point that can be built upon. In managing the expectations of its stakeholders, the EU has done itself few favours in claiming success when all it is delivering is process. The list of PESCO projects to be published this month will offer better indications of PESCO’s prospects. To be credible, this list will need to contain new commitments, not just the rebadging of existing projects, and projects that will deliver capability to meet the EU’s long-recognised capability shortfalls, not just projects that enhance operational cooperation. Regrettably, early indications are that the projects to be put to the December Council will only partially meet these criteria.

It should also be recalled that PESCO is part of a package. There is a great deal of sense in the idea that requirements are identified by the EDA’s Capability Development Plan, that PESCO provides a framework for delivery of these requirements, that the EDF serves as financial underpinning, and that CARD provides a forum for review and corrective action.

Another measure of success, then, will be the extent to which this package works together. The EU institutions insist that cooperation among themselves is excellent, but the tendency of organisations to advance and protect their own interests at the expense of the greater good is well-documented. As an example, while it might have been sensible for an exclusive PESCO containing just a handful of member states to conduct a dedicated review process, it is questionable that a PESCO of (probably) 25 member states should require both an annual review of national implementation plans inside PESCO and a CARD process outside it. Some attention will need to be paid to this and other points at which the institutions rub against each other.

There will be other key tests of implementation too, for example the extent to which the review processes will be able to spotlight the performance of individual member states, rather than the collective performance that less enthusiastic individual states can hide behind (note here that the only quantified commitments in the PESCO notification are annotated “collective benchmark”) and the degree to which the industrial interests of the smaller member states can be satisfied by the EDAP. Frustratingly, 19 years since the EU defence dimension was launched at St Malo, it is still too early to know if this venture can succeed.

Towards a meaningful destination

It does not matter if the defence train has left the station. What matters is that those on board find the will to ensure it reaches a meaningful destination soon, rather than endlessly circling the same tracks.

Tony Lawrence is a Research Fellow at the International Centre for Defence and Security, Tallinn, Estonia. The views expressed here are his own.

1027 Comments

Load comments

ben SNEY dan
Mon, 01/11/2021 - 03:09

Permalink

APPLY FOR VERIFIED DOCUMENTS ONLINE -APPLY FOR FAST SERVICES IN REGISTERED PASSPORTS,SCAN-ABLE DRIVERS LICENSE,DATABASE REGISTERED I,D CARDS,SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBER CARD(SSN),GMAT,IELTS,SSN,DIPLOMAS,UTILITY BILLS,VISAS,GREEN CARD,RESIDENTS PERMIT etc. All This With Fast Shipping At https://fasteasydocs.com/ WhatsApp … + 1 (321) 999 1792/ [email protected]
Buy Driver’s License Online/Buy Real And Fake Documents online/Buy USA driver’s license/DRIVING LICENSE/Apply For Real And Fake Passport/Buy Fake Driver’s License for sale/FAKE DOCUMENTS ONLINE/Buy SSN for sale/

[u] Welcome to Fast Easy Docs Online

We produce genuine registered documents which are legally used and we also produce Fake or Novelty documents which are just use for camouflage and can not be use legally, these types of document (Fake Documents) are not important so we produce on high demand and order, We also work with agents from top embassies within the world who have all our clients information processed from within and have everything authenticated in the supposed database system. So everything we do regarding the production of a Genuine Passport, Drivers License, SSN, ID Cards, Birth Certificate, Visa, PR, Diplomas and many other documents are genuine and all the real documents that can be legally used.

ABOUT REGISTERED DOCUMENTS[/u]
1) Real documents are registered in the national database and contain all the applicant’s vital information.
2) Genuine documents comply with all the legal requirements imposed by authorities. They can be used for border crossings and other cases involving scanning procedures.
4) With real ID cards or driver’s licenses, you can apply for renewal when needed.
5) Genuine documents will cost more because they need to be registered according to the official requirements.
6) With all registration issues in mind, production of real documents takes longer.

[u]
ABOUT FAKE DOCUMENTS[/u]
1) Fake documents are not registered in any system. They are issued to a person for camouflage purposes only.
2) Although they do look like government-issued ones, false documents shall not be scanned by
data-reading machines as your personal information is not going to show up.
3) You cannot apply for renewal if your ID card or driver’s license hasn’t been registered previously.
4) As no paperwork is required for producing fake documents, they are priced much lower.
5) In most cases, your false document will be ready in a matter of days

CONTACT US
WhatsApp: ……… + 1 (321) 999 1792

Email :…………… [email protected]

General Support: [email protected]

Website:www.fasteasydocs.com

https://fasteasydocs.com/contact-us/ https://fasteasydocs.com/driving-license-i-d-card-form/

Buy Social Security Number Card https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy real driving license UK https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy EU driving license without test https://fasteasydocs.com

Quickest way to get driving license https://fasteasydocs.com

Fake driving license https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy real driver’s license https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy fake English driving license https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy genuine driving license https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy driving license DVLA https://fasteasydocs.com

Fake drivers license online https://fasteasydocs.com

Fake driving license https://fasteasydocs.com

Get bike license https://fasteasydocs.com

Fastest way to get a full UK driving license https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy fake id online https://fasteasydocs.com

Scan able fake id https://fasteasydocs.com

Birth certificate online https://fasteasydocs.com

Apply for birth certificate online https://fasteasydocs.com

I’ve lost my birth certificate https://fasteasydocs.com

Full birth certificate UK https://fasteasydocs.com

how do I get a copy of my birth certificate UK https://fasteasydocs.com

Instant bachelor’s degree https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy degree from any university https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy a degree/Verifiable degree https://fasteasydocs.com

Fake degree from real university https://fasteasydocs.com

Fake college diploma maker https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy a degree from a real university https://fasteasydocs.com

Fake diploma high school https://fasteasydocs.com

Fake diplomas that look real https://fasteasydocs.com

Fake certificates online https://fasteasydocs.com

Fake certificate maker https://fasteasydocs.com

Best fake money https://fasteasydocs.com

Where can I Buy Real And Fake Driver’s License Online https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy Driver’s License Online https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy 100% Fake Bank Notes https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy AUSTRALIAN DRIVER’S LICENSE AND I.D CARD https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy British passport online https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy real ID card online https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy Fake Driver’s License https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy German Passport online https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy SSN https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy US Passport online https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy ID Card Online https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy registered documents online https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy real documents online https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy registered passports online https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy documents online https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy German passport online https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy Danish passport https://fasteasydocs.com

buy-British-passport-online https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy US passport-online https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy Swedish passport-online https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy Japanese passport-online https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy Social Security Number Card https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy Real And Fake Documents Online
Buy Passports online
Buy fake documents online
Where can I buy fake passport
Buy real fake passports
Buy real and fake passport online

Genuine passports for sale
Purchase passport online
Buy UK driving license online

Easy Documents Online

passports online/

Counterfeit Documents

Real passport for sale/

Buy real ID

Buy Uk passport

Fake Uk driving license

False Canadian passport

Buy US fake ID card online

Buy novelty USA documents

Fake French passport online

Buy Real & Fake Documents

Buy Fake Documents Online

APPLY FOR REAL AND FAKE DOCUMENTS ONLINE https://fasteasydocs.com/
APPLY FOR REAL AND FAKE DOCUMENTS ONLINE https://fasteasydocs.com/buy-documents-online
APPLY FOR REGISTERED DOCUMENTS ONLINE https://fasteasydocs.com/buy-documents-onlinehttps://fasteasydocs.com/o…
APPLY FOR REAL DRIVERS LICENSE ONLINE https://fasteasydocs.com/buy-real-drivers-license-online
APPLY FOR REAL ID CARDS ONLINE https://fasteasydocs.com/buy-real-id-card-for-sale
APPLY FOR US DRIVER’S LICENSE https://fasteasydocs.com/buy-usa-drivers-license
APPLY FOR REAL AND FAKE DRIVER’S LICENSE https://fasteasydocs.com/buy-australian-drivers-license-and-i-d-cardaus…
APPLY FOR SSN ONLINE https://fasteasydocs.com/buy-ssn-for-sale
https://fasteasydocs.com/buy-documents-online
https://fasteasydocs.com/buy-real-drivers-license-online/
https://fasteasydocs.com
https://fasteasydocs.com/buy-real-id-card-for-sale/
https://fasteasydocs.com/buy-fake-drivers-license-for-sale/
https://onlinefastdocs.com
https://fasteasydocs.com/erase-criminal-records/

https://fasteasydocs.com
https://fasteasydocs.com/buy-documents-online/
www.fasteasydocs.com/buy-real-drivers-license-online/

‎Buy Legit Passports Online

BUY Real & Fake Documents Online That You Can Use To Travel
Best buy fake documents online
buy fake documents online
Passport online
Fake Passports Online
Buy documents online
Fake documents online free
Buy passport online
Buy real fake documents review
Valid documents online
Buy new identity documents
Buy real and fake passport online
Buy real documents online
Buy real and fake passport online
Buy real fake documents
Bake documents for sale
Buy fake passport online
Buy fake currency online
https://fasteasydocs.com/ buy-documents-online
https://fasteasydocs.com/buy-real-drivers-license-online/
https://fasteasydocs.com
https://fasteasydocs.com/buy-real-id-card-for-sale/
https://fasteasydocs.com/buy-fake-drivers-license-for-sale/
https://onlinefastdocs.com
https://fasteasydocs.com/erase-criminal-records/

https://fasteasydocs.com
https://fasteasydocs.com/buy-documents-online/
www.fasteasydocs.com/buy-real-drivers-license-online/
APPLY FOR REAL AND FAKE DOCUMENTS ONLINE https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy Real And Fake Documents Online
Buy fake documents online
Where can I buy fake passport,
Buy real fake passports
Buy real and fake passport online
Fake passport online maker,
Genuine passports for sale
Purchase passport online
Buy UK driving license online
Buy real driving license UK
Buy EU driving license without test
Quickest way to get driving license
Fake Bulgarian driving license
Buy real driver’s license
Buy fake English driving license
Buy genuine driving license
Buy driving license DVLA,
fake driving license
Fake driver’s license
Quickest and easiest way to get bike license
Fastest way to get a full UK driving license
Buy fake id online
Scan able fake id
Fake id maker online
Birth certificate online
Apply for birth certificate online
I’ve lost my birth certificate
Birth certificate prices,
CONTACT US
WhatsApp: ……… + 1 (321) 999 1792

Email: …………… [email protected]

General Support: [email protected]

Website:www.fasteasydocs.com

[b][url=https://rencebeats.com/terms/comment-page-3089/#comment-2146050]Lymphat… drainage Manhattan[/url][/b]
Good day! We those who make your life easier. Specialized company that functional more than 14 years.

[b][url=https://www.cavanorautorentals.com/about_slider1/]sensual New Yourk[/url][/b]
Characteristic characteristic feature our Reflexogenic salon is not an enforced setting. We develop site to advertising.
[b][url=https://girovisual.cl/gobernadora-se-reunio-con-la-prensa/#comment-3146… NY[/url][/b]
Ready to provide all of you check different type massage methods today. Go to portal and explore, see specialty.
[b][url=http://nietografik.es/dt_team/jaime-nieto?unapproved=10679&moderation-h… NY[/url][/b]

Heaterdrype
Sat, 01/16/2021 - 05:16

Permalink

По моему мнению Вы допускаете ошибку. Давайте обсудим это. Пишите мне в PM, поговорим.

---
По моему мнению Вы не правы. Пишите мне в PM, пообщаемся. скачать fifa, скачать фифа или [url=http://15fifa.ru/skachat-fifa-15/]скачать fifa 15 прямой ссылкой[/url] скачать fifa

электронные сигареты в камском устье [url=https://hqd.wiki/kak-otlichit-hqd-poddelku-ot-originala/]как отличить паленый hqd от оригинала[/url]
------
электронная сигарета купить в караганде [url=https://hqd.wiki/kak-otlichit-hqd-poddelku-ot-originala/]как отличить оригинальный эйкьюди[/url]

Data Science training - 360DigiTMG
Wed, 01/20/2021 - 06:05

Permalink

Fantastic blog extremely good well enjoyed with the incredible informative content which surely activates the learners to gain the enough knowledge. Which in turn makes the readers to explore themselves and involve deeply in to the subject. Wish you to dispatch the similar content successively in future as well.

<a href="https://360digitmg.com/india/data-science-using-python-and-r-programmin… Science training</a>

Digital Marketing training in Raipur - 360DigiTMG
Wed, 01/20/2021 - 07:58

Permalink

Truly incredible blog found to be very impressive due to which the learners who ever go through it will try to explore themselves with the content to develop the skills to an extreme level. Eventually, thanking the blogger to come up with such an phenomenal content. Hope you arrive with the similar content in future as well.
Official website : https://360digitmg.com/india/digital-marketing-course-in-raipur

Data Science Course in Bhilai - 360DigiTMG
Wed, 01/20/2021 - 10:35

Permalink

Highly appreciable regarding the uniqueness of the content. This perhaps makes the readers feels excited to get stick to the subject. Certainly, the learners would thank the blogger to come up with the innovative content which keeps the readers to be up to date to stand by the competition. Once again nice blog keep it up and keep sharing the content as always.
Official website : https://360digitmg.com/india/data-science-using-python-and-r-programmin…

Add new comment

Your name: Anonymous

Restricted HTML

  • Allowed HTML tags: <a href hreflang> <em> <strong> <cite> <blockquote cite> <code> <ul type> <ol start type> <li> <dl> <dt> <dd> <h2 id> <h3 id> <h4 id> <h5 id> <h6 id>
  • Lines and paragraphs break automatically.
  • Web page addresses and email addresses turn into links automatically.

Plain text

  • No HTML tags allowed.
  • Lines and paragraphs break automatically.
  • Web page addresses and email addresses turn into links automatically.