More and more states are embarking upon offensive cyber operations. They launch pre-emptive cyber-attacks or retaliate against cyber-adversaries forcefully. This may seem to be effective in the short term, but it may well lead to even more insecurity and instability in cyberspace. To prevent a continuing escalation of cyber conflict, it may be better to invest in attribution and less forceful retaliation, rather than in offensive cyber capabilities. In this Clingendael Alert, Sico van der Meer argues that the Netherlands should make a deliberate choice between these two options.
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