This report has previously been published by The International Academic Forum (IAFOR).
The International Academic Forum (IAFOR) was commissioned by the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA) to conduct this international study on the prevention and responses to the outbreak of infectious diseases on international cruise ships, and how the system of international cooperation and coordination (including areas of international law) could be improved, in the wake of the COVID-19 outbreak incidents affecting cruise ships, such as the Diamond Princess, the Westerdam and the Costa Atlantica.
To this end, IAFOR’s research arm, the IAFOR Research Centre at the Osaka School of International Public Policy, Osaka University established a Japanese Experts Committee and a network of collaborating overseas think tanks, namely the East-West Center – Washington D.C., the Netherlands Institute of International Relations – Clingendael, and The Bartlett Real Estate Institute at University College London. The core group also consulted other experts from the EU Healthy Gateways and the Centre of International Law at the National University of Singapore.”
Clingendael experts contributed case studies on cruise ships and the COVID-19 experience from the perspective of the Netherlands, which is home to the biggest European port (Rotterdam) and flag state to globally operating cruise lines. These studies addressed the following topics:
- issues and actions of the Netherlands’ government;
- prospects for international cooperation;
- the Holland America Line;
- the EU and public health;
- health law and governance perspective