Altenburg, T. and U. Eckhardt (2006), Productivity enhancement and equitable development: challenges for SME development, UNIDO, Vienna.

Banfield, J. et al. (eds.) (2006), Local Business Local Peace – The peacebuilding potential of the domestic private sector (accessed June 2016), International Alert, London.

Basnett, Y. and R. Sen (2013), What do empirical studies say about economic growth and job creation in developing countries?, ODI, London.

Biggs, T. and M.K. Shah (2006), African SMEs, networks and manufacturing performance, Policy Research Working Paper 3855, World Bank, Washington D.C.

Binzel, C. T. Brück (2007), ‘Analyzing conflict and fragility at the micro-level’, paper presented at the UNU-WIDER Conference on Fragile States–Fragile Groups, Helsinki, 15–16 June 2007.

Boege, V. et al. (2008), On Hybrid Political Orders and Emerging States. State Formation in the Context of ‘Fragility’, Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management, Berlin.

Brueck, T. et al. (ed.) (2011) Small Business, Entrepreneurship, and Violent Conflict in Developing Countries, Special Issue of the Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, Vol 24 No. 2 (2011)

Brueck, T. et al. (2015), Theories of Change Linking Employment and Stability in Fragile and Conflict-affected Situations. A scoping study for the Working Group on Employment for Stability of the Dutch Government ‘Knowledge Platform’ of Security and Rule of Law.

Cheng C.S. and D. Zaum (eds.) (2013), Corruption and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding: Selling the Peace?, IPPC, London.

Chang, H. (2011), ‘Institutions and economic development: theory, policy and history’, Journal of International Economics 7 (4), December 2011, 473-498.

Collier, P. (2010), ‘State-building: Job creation, investment promotion, and the provision of basic services’, Prism 2(4), pp. 17-30.

Corduneanu-Huci, C. et al. (2012), Understanding policy change: How to apply political economy concepts in practice, World Bank, Washington D.C.

De Vries H. and L. Specker (2009), Early Economic Recovery in Fragile States. Priority Areas and Operational Challenges, Conflict Research Unit, the Clingendael Institute, The Hague.

Dudwick, N. and R. Srinivasan (2013), Creating Jobs in Africa’s Fragile States: Are Value Chains an Answer?, Direction in Development, World Bank, Washington D.C.

Goodhand, J. (2013), ‘Corrupting or Consolidating the Peace? The drugs economy and post-conflict peacebuilding in Afghanistan’, in: Cheng C.S. and D. Zaum (2013), Corruption and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding: Selling the Peace?, IPPC, London.

Goldberg, M. et al. (2014), How Firms Cope with Crime and Violence: Experiences from around the World, Directions in Development. World Bank Independent Evaluation Group, Washington DC.

Golub S. and H. Faraz (2014), Employment, unemployment, and underemployment, Working Paper, UNU-WIDER, Helsinki.

Goodwell Investments (2013), Dutch Good Growth Fund – enhance access to finance for SME segment in developing countries – (‘spoor 2’), Strategic advice by Goodwell Investments, commissioned by Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

Gugliemetti, C. (2010), Measuring the business environment for entrepreneurship in fragile states, Working Paper, UNU-WIDER, Helsinki.

Gutierrez, E. (2011), Introducing Political Settlements, Christian Aid Occasional Paper Number 4.

Hellman, J. (2012), ‘Working together in fragile and conflict-affected situations’, presentation delivered at the Donor Forum 2012, session 3, 15/16 May 2012 in Paris.

Iacovone, L. et al. (2013), Stunted growth? Why don’t African firms create more jobs?, Policy Research Working Paper, World Bank, Washington D.C.

IFC (2013), IFC Jobs Study: Assessing private sector contributions to job creation and poverty reduction, Washington D.C.

IFC and McKinsey & Company (2010), Two trillion and counting. Assessing the credit gap for micro, small, and medium-size enterprises in the developing world, Washington D.C.

Kaplan, S. (2013), What the World Bank does not understand about ‘doing business’(accessed June 2016), blog posted April 2013.

Khan, M. (2006), ‘Determinants of Corruption in Developing Countries: the Limits of Conventional Economic Analysis’, in: Rose-Ackerman, S., (ed.), International Handbook on the Economics of Corruption. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 216-244.

Keeler R. and J. Lofbom (2013), Risky Business: Promoting Private Sector Development in Post-Conflict States – Lessons from the Africa Enterprise Challenge Fund, Impact Paper 12, KPMG International Development Advisory Services (IDAS), Nairobi.

Kessler, A. (2013), Measuring Results of Private Sector Development in Conflict-Affected Environment: A Case Study of the Sustainable Employment and Economic Development (SEED) Programme in Somalia, prepared by MarketShare Associates for the Donor Committee for Enterprise Development, Cambridge.

Kolk, A. and F. Lenfant (2012), ‘Business-NGO collaboration in a conflict setting: partnership activities in the Democratic Republic of Congo’, Business & Society, 51 (3).

Levy, B. (2014), Working with the Grain. Integrating governance and growth in development strategies,Oxford University Press, New York.

Lindbergt, J. and C. Orjuela (2014), ‘Corruption in the Aftermath of war: an Introduction’, Third World Quarterly, 35:5, 723-736.

Mac Sweeney, N. (2008), Private Sector Development in post-conflict countries. A review of current practice and literature, DCED, Cambridge.

Meagher, K. et al. (2014), Unravelling Public Authority, paths of hybrid governance in Africa, Research Brief # 10, IS Academy Human Security in Fragile States, Wageningen.

Mungiu-Pippidi, A. (2011), ‘Contextual Choices in Fighting Corruption: Lessons Learned’ (accessed June 2016), NORAD, Report 4/2011, July 2011.

Munshi, K. (2007), From farming to international business: the social auspices of entrepreneurship in a growing economy, Working Paper 13065, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge (MA).

The Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs (2013a), Ondernemen voor ontwikkeling: Investeren in Duurzame en Inclusieve Groei, The Hague.

The Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs (2013b), A World to Gain. A New Agenda for Aid, Trade and Investment, The Hague.

The Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs (2013c), Beantwoording Kamervragen over Beleidsnota ‘Wat de Wereld verdient’, The Hague.

Naudé, W. (2007), Peace, prosperity, and pro-growth entrepreneurship, Discussion Paper, UNU-WIDER, Helsinki.

Naudé, W. et al. (2011), ‘Small Business, Entrepreneurship and Violent Conflict in Developing Countries’, Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, 24(2): pp. 161-178.

Naudé, W. (2013), Bombs and Business How can entrepreneurs in fragile states manage the risks of violent conflict? (accessed August 2014) (accessed June 2016), UNU-MERIT’s blog posted January 2013.

North, D. et al. (2006), A conceptual framework for interpreting recorded human history, Working Paper 12795, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge (MA).

OECD/DAC (2011), Supporting statebuilding in situations of conflict and fragility: Policy Guidance, DAC Guidelines and References Series, OECD, Paris.

OnFrontiers (2014), Improving SME Investment Strategies in Fragile States: Understanding the Risks and Impact, Consolidated Results, un-published (available from authors upon request).

Parker, J.C. (2008), A Synthesis of Practical Lessons from Value Chain Projects in Conflict-Affected Environments (accessed June 2016), microReport no. 105, USAID, Washington, DC.

Patterson, J. (2010), ‘Towards a Post-Conflict Development Doctrine’, in Kauffman Foundation, Proceedings from the Summit on Entrepreneurship and Expeditionary Economics, Kauffmann Foundation: Kansas City (MO).

Peschka, M.P. (2011), The role of the private sector in fragile and conflict-affected states, World Development Report 2011 Background Paper, World Bank, Washington DC.

Philip, M. (2013), ‘Conceptualising corruption in peacebuilding contexts’, in: Cheng, C.S., and D. Zaum (2013), Corruption and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding: Selling the Peace?, IPPC, London.

Reno, W. (1998), Warlord Politics and African States, Lynne Rienner Publishers, London.

Rijkers, B. et al. (2014), All in the Family. State Capture in Tunisia (accessed June 2016), Policy Research Working Paper, World Bank, Washington D.C.

Ritchie, H. (2013), Negotiating tradition, power and fragility in Afghanistan. Institutional innovation and change in value chain development, ISS PhD thesis, Erasmus University, Rotterdam.

Schiffbauer, M. et al. (2015), Jobs or Privileges: Unleashing the Employment Potential of the Middle East and North Africa. World Bank. Washington D.C.

Schramm, Carl. J. (2010), ‘Expeditionary Economics: Spurring Growth after Conflicts and Disasters’, Foreign Affairs. May/June. 89-99.

Skyler Fernandes, J. and L. Sene (2010), ‘Investing in Africa: Defining the “Missing Middle”‘ (accessed June 2016), April 2010, in Missing Middle Article Series Featured in Huffington Post

Spark (2014), Tackling Barriers for SMEs in Fragile States, Discussion Paper at Ignite Conference, 19 November 2014, Amsterdam.

Stel, N. (2012), Entrepreneurship and innovation in a hybrid political order. The case of Lebanon, Working Paper Series, UNU-MERIT, Maastricht.

Stewart, F. et al. (2006), Social Exclusion and Conflict: Analysis and Policy Implications, Policy Paper, CRISE, Oxford.

Tobias J., and K. Boudreaux (2009), The role of entrepreneurship in conflict reduction in the post-genocide Rwandan coffee industry: Quantitative evidence from a field study, Working Paper, Mercatus Center at George Mason University, Arlington (VA).

UN (2009), United Nations policy for post-conflict employment creation, income generation and reintegration, New York.

UNDP and UNDDR (2012), Blame it on the War? The Gender Dimensions of Violence in Disarmament (accessed June 2016), Demobilization and Reintegration.

UNDP (2013), Livelihoods & economic recovery in crisis situations, Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery, New York.

Waal, de, A. (2009), ‘Mission without end? Peacekeeping in the African political marketplace’, International Affairs, 85 (1), January 2009, 99-113.

Wood, G. (2003), ‘Staying Secure, Staying Poor: The “Faustian Bargain’’’, World Development, 31 (3), March 2003, 455-471.

World Bank, Enterprise surveys versus Doing Business (accessed June 2016), Washington, DC: World Bank.

World Bank (2007), Urban bus operations in Dhaka. Operationalizing political economy, South Asia Political Economy and Governance Issues Note No 1., Washington, DC: World Bank

World Bank (2010), ‘Unemployment and Participation in Violence’, Background paper for the World Development Report 2011, Washington, DC: World Bank

World Bank (2011), World Development Report 2011: Conflict, Security, and Development, Washington, DC: World Bank

World Bank (2013a), Doing Business 2014. Understanding regulations for small and medium-size enterprises, Washington, DC: World Bank

World Bank (2013b), Doing Business in the g7+ 2013: Smarter Regulations for Small and Medium-Size Enterprises (accessed June 2016), Washington, DC: World Bank.

World Bank (2014), The Big Business of Small Enterprises: Evaluation of the World Bank Group Experience with Targeted Support to Small and Medium-Size Enterprises, 2006-12. Washington, DC: World Bank.