Required policies

Policy recommendations

80% of migration = intra-African livelihood protection strategy; only 20% of West African migrants ultimately travel on to Italy

Adopt measures that differentiate between streams divert migration rather than attempting to stop it

Combine existing data sources to identify different migration dynamics

Design policies that target Europe-bound migration dynamics while regularising and facilitating intra-African migration

Invest in regional economic opportunities in stable African countries by providing financial/trade incentives such as to ECOWAS

State authorities and security forces directly and indirectly engaged in irregular migration industry

Capacity building of security forces should form part of a parallel process of institution building

Map the actors on the ground: post political advisors to the EUCAP Sahel training centre in Agadez

Make capacity building part of a parallel process of security sector reform: design flexibly (with local political buy-in) and address local perceptions of insecurity to increase legitimacy

Invest in continuous political dialogue and structural leadership development

Invest in rule of law and judiciary capacity such as through strengthening customary justice provision for migrants

Irregular migration industry has created an economic boom in desert towns

Use this boom to spur more diversified local development

Map the (informal) industries on the ground: post private sector development advisors to the EUCAP Sahel training centre in Agadez

Strengthen existing (informal) companies and initiatives while preventing corruption & rent-seeking in the process

Invest in strengthening the informal rather than superimposing new formal job schemes and vocational training

Absence of state authorities in northern Mali and Libya allows armed groups to use migratory proceeds to fund prolongation of armed conflict

Make the fight against human smuggling, exploitation and trafficking an integral part of peace negotiations

Put more weight behind peace processes and use these processes as a carrot to push for the better treatment of migrants

Maintain a focus on human smuggling in the follow-up to peace agreements such as by incorporating former smugglers in monitoring

Reduce the availability of spoils such as by pushing for the decriminalisation of migrants in Libya

Invest in civil society engagement: identify groups engaged in migrant protection and the fight against organised crime