Books and articles

Abdullah 2017. Peshmerga Forces Between Unification and Division. Mashreq Politics and Culture Journal.

Aziz 2017. Reforming the civil-military relationship in Kurdistan. Amman: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung.

Banco 2017. ‘The curse of oil in Iraqi Kurdistan.’ PRI GlobalPost Investigations. link

Boege, Brown, Clements and Nolan 2008. On Hybrid Political Orders and Emerging States: State Formation in the Context of ‘Fragility’, Berlin: Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management.

Chapman 2009. Security Forces of the Kurdistan Regional Government. U.S. Army War College.

Denali 2005. The Kurds and the state: Evolving national identity in Iraq, Turkey and Iran. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.

Farhan 2018. ‘Reality Versus The Rules: Kurdish Parties Bend Iraq’s Electoral Rules On Politics With Guns.’ Niqash. link.

Filkins 2014. ISIS vs. the Kurds: The Fight of Their Lives. The New Yorker.

Gaston and Derszi-Horvath 2017. Iraq after ISIL: An Analysis of Local, Hybrid, and Sub-State Security Forces, Berlin: Global Public Policy Institute.

Gaston, Derzsi-Horvath, van den Toorn and Mathieu-Comtois 2017. Backgrounder: Literature Review of Local, Regional or Sub-Sate Defense Forces in Iraq. Berlin: Global Public Policy Institute.

Gonzalez 2015. Kurdish Peshmerga: Divided from Within. Harvard Political Review.

Gürbey, Hofmann and Seyder (eds) 2017. Between State and Non-State: Politics and Society in Kurdistan-Iraq and Palestine. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Hadad and Wallace 2017. The Kurdish Security Apparatus: Vulnerability and Structure. Small Wars Journal.

Hama 2017. ‘KRG Politicized Forces Pose Threat to Human Security.’ link

Hama 2018. Systemic Crisis in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Philadelphia: Foreign Policy Research Institute.

Harris 2014. Chaos in Iraq: Are the Kurds Truly Set to Win? Small Wars Journal.

Hassan 2015. Kurdistan’s Politicised Society Confronts a Sultanistic System. Beirut: Carnegie Middle East Center.

Helfont 2017. Getting Peshmerga Reform Right: Helping the Iraqi Kurds to Help Themselves in Post-ISIS Iraq. Philadelphia: Foreign Policy Research Institute.

Hiltermann and Fantappie 2018. ‘Twilight of the Kurds.’ Foreign Policy. link

International Crisis Group 2015. Arming Iraq’s Kurds: Fighting IS, Inviting Conflict, Middle East Report N°158. Baghdad/Erbil/Brussels: International Crisis Group.

International Crisis Group 2017. Post-ISIS Iraq: A Gathering Storm, Brussels/Beirut: International Crisis Group.

Jüde 2017. ‘Contesting borders? The formation of Iraqi Kurdistan’s de facto state.’ International Affairs 93: 4, 847–863.

Knights 2014. Divided Forces in Iraq. Middle East Insider. Washington: The Washington Institute for Near East Policy.

Knights 2015. The Long Haul: Rebooting U.S. Security Cooperation in Iraq. Policy Focus 137. Washington: The Washington Institute for Near East Policy.

Mansour 2017. Iraq After the Fall of ISIS: The Struggle for the State, London: Chatham House.

Sayigh 2017. Past the Crossroads. Beirut: Carnegie Middle East Center.

Schneckener 2009. Spoilers or Governance Actors? Engaging Armed Non-State Groups in Areas of Limited Statehood. SFB-Governance Working Paper Series, No. 21. Berlin: DFG Research Center (SFB) 700.

Van Veen 2017. Iraq beyond Mosul: Avoiding the next conflict (meeting summary), The Hague: Clingendael.

Van Veen and Fliervoet 2018. Hybrid security actors in the Levant: The politics and force of competition and cooperation, The Hague: Clingendael (forthcoming).

Van Veen, El Kamouni-Janssen and Grinstead 2017. A house divided: Political relations and coalition-building between Iraq’s Shi’a, The Hague: Clingendael.

Van Wilgenburg and Fumerton 2015. Kurdistan’s Political Armies: The Challenge of Unifying the Peshmerga Forces. Beirut: Carnegie Middle East Center.

Zenko 2016. ‘Remembering the Iraqi Uprising Twenty-Five Years Ago.’ Council on Foreign Relations. link.

Online newspapers, blogs and sites

Al-Jazeera at link

Al-Monitor at link

Azhans at link

BBC at link

Business Insider at link

Carnegie Middle East Center – Diwan at link

CNN at link

Ekurd Daily at link

Foreign Affairs at link

Kurdistan Regional Government at link

Middle East Research Institute at link

Reuters at link

Rudaw at link

Stratfor at link

The Global Coalition Against Daesh at link

The Guardian at link

The Independent at link

The New York Times at link

The Washington Post at link

VICE at link