The report is part of Clingendael’s Levant research program that analyses hybrid security organizations – armed groups that simultaneously compete and cooperate with the state – in Syria and Iraq in the context of Iranian, Turkish and Saudi foreign policy. More about this program, including its publications to date, can be found here: link
The present report is based on analysis of open online sources in both English and Arabic, including media reporting, analyses produced by think tanks and academic writings.
The authors are grateful to Edith Szanto (American University of Iraq, Sulaymaniyyah), Nancy Ezzeddine and Floor El Kamouni-Janssen (both Clingendael) for their review of this report which was made possible in part through support from the Association of Dutch municipalities (VNG). Its contents remain the responsibility of the authors.