7.1 Bibliography

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Abdi, R. 2017. A Dangerous Gulf in the Horn: How the Inter-Arab Crisis Is Fueling Regional Tensions, Brussels: International Crisis Group.

Abidllahi, A. 2014. Note 1 - La dimension politique de l’islam à Djibouti, Bordeaux: Observatoire des Enjeux Politiques et Sécuritaires dans la Corne de l’Afrique.

Abir, M. 1974. Oil, Power and Politics: Conflict in Arabia, the Red Sea and the Gulf, London: Cass.

Ajami, F. 1978. ‘The End of Pan-Arabism’, Foreign Affairs, 57(2), 355–373.

Al-Khidr 'Abd al-Baqi, M. 2006. Surat Al-ʿArab ladha al-Afariqa. Cairo: Jamiʿat al-Duwal al-ʿArabiyya.

Al-Rasheed, M. 2002. A History of Saudi Arabia, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Al-Rasheed, M. 2007. Contesting the Saudi state: Islamic voices of a new generation, New York: Cambridge University Press.

Atarodi, A. 2010. Yemen in Crisis, Consequences for the Horn of Africa, Stockholm: Swedish Defence Research Agency.

Baaboud, A. 2005. ‘Dynamics and Determinants of the GCC States’ Foreign Policy, with Special Reference to the EU’, in: Analyzing Middle East Foreign Policies and the Relationship with Europe, ed. Nonneman, G. London: Routledge.

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Beblawi, H., and Luciani, G., ed. 1987. The Rentier State: Nation, State and the Integration of the Arab World, London: Croom Helm.

Bellemare, M. 2015. ‘Rising Food Prices, Food Price Volatility, and Social Unrest’, American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 97(1), 1–21.

Bertelsmann Stiftung. 2016. Bertelsmann Transformation Index — United Arab Emirates Country Report, Gütersloh.

Bertelsmann Stiftung. 2016. Bertelsmann Transformation Index — Qatar Country Report, Gütersloh.

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Calculli, M., and Legrenzi, M. 2016. ‘Middle East Security: Continuity Amid Change’, in: International Relations of the Middle East, ed. Fawcett, L., 4th edition, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 218–235.

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Cordesman, A., and Obaid, N. 2005. National Security in Saudi Arabia. Threats, Responses and Challenges, Westport: Praeger.

Crystal, J. 1990. Oil and Politics in the Gulf: Rulers and Merchants in Kuwait and Qatar, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

De Waal, A. 1989. Famine that Kills: Darfur, Sudan, 1984–85, Oxford: Clarendon Press.

De Waal, A. 2015. The Real Politics of the Horn of Africa: Money, War and the Business of Power, Cambridge: Polity Press.

Desplat, P., Østebø, T. 2013. Muslim Ethiopia. The Christian Legacy, Identity Politics, and Islamic Reformism, New York: Palgrave MacMillan.

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Erlich, H. 2007. Saudi Arabia and Ethiopia: Islam, Christianity and politics entwined, Boulder, Lynne Rienner.

Faksh, M. 1994. ‘The prospects of Islamic fundamentalism in the post–Gulf War period’, International Journal, 49(2), 183–218.

Flahaux, M., and De Haas, H. 2016. ‘African migration: trends, patterns, drivers’, Comparative Migration Studies, 4(1).

Geda, A., and Yimer, A. Forthcoming. Growth, poverty and inequality in Ethiopia, 2000–2013: A Macroeconomic appraisal.

Gridneff, I. Forthcoming. ‘Burning Somalia’s Future: The Illegal Charcoal Trade between the Horn of Africa and the Gulf’, in: Environmental Politics in the Middle East, ed. Verhoeven, H. London: Hurst.

Hagmann, T. 2016. Stabilization, Extraversion and Political Settlements in Somalia, London: The Rift Valley Institute.

Hagmann, T., and Reyntjens, F., ed. 2016. Aid and Authoritarianism in Africa: Development without Democracy, London: Zed Books.

Halliday, F. 2005. The Middle East in International Relations, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hertog, S. 2010. ‘Defying the Resource Curse: Explaining Successful State-Owned Enterprises in Rentier States’, World Politics, 62(2), 261–301.

Hinnebusch, R. 2016. ‘The Politics of Identity in Middle East International Relations’, in: International Relations of the Middle East, ed. Fawcett, L., 4th edition, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 155-175.

Human Rights Watch. 2012. “Waiting Here for Death”: Forced Displacement and “Villagization” in Ethiopia’s Gambella Region, New York: Human Rights Watch.

Ibnouf, A., Dou, L., and Knight, J. 2014. ‘The evolution of Qatar as an education hub: Moving to a knowledge-based economy’, in: International Education Hubs, ed. Knight, J. Springer, 43–61.

International Crisis Group. 2016. Ethiopia: Governing the Faithful, Crisis Group Africa Briefing no. 117, Brussels.

International Monetary Fund. 2016. IMF Country Report No. 16/322: The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Washington DC .

Jones, T. 2010. Desert Kingdom. How Oil and Water Forged Modern Saudi Arabia, Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Kamrava, M. 2015. Qatar: Small State, Big Politics, Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Keeley, J. , Seide, W., and Eid, A., et al., 2014. Large-scale land deals in Ethiopia: Scale, trends, features and outcomes to date, London: International Institute for Environment and Development.

Keulertz, M., and Woertz, E. 2015. ‘Financial Challenges of the Nexus: Pathways for Investment in Water, Energy and Agriculture in the Arab World’, International Journal of Water Resources Development, 31(3), 312–325.

Khashan, H. 2017. ‘Saudi Arabia's Flawed " Vision 2030"‘, Middle East Quarterly, 24(1).

Komey, G. 2010. Land, Governance, Conflict & the Nuba of Sudan, Woodbridge: James Currey.

Lavers, T. 2012. ’Patterns of agrarian transformation in Ethiopia: State-mediated commercialisation and the ‘land grab’.’ The Journal of Peasant Studies 39(3-4), 795-822.

Lewis, I. 2002. A Modern History of the Somali: Nation and State in the Horn of Africa, Athens: Ohio University Press.

Love, R. 2009. Economic Drivers of Conflict and Cooperation in the Horn of Africa: A Regional Perspective and Overview, London: Chatham House.

Mahajan, V. 2011. Africa Rising: How 900 million African consumers offer more than you think, Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.

Mahmoud, H. 2010. Livestock Trade in the Kenyan, Somali and Ethiopian Borderlands, London: Chatham House.

Markakis, J. 1987. National and Class Conflict in the Horn of Africa, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Maru, M. 2018. ‘UAE and Its Relations with the Horn of Africa’, Discourse Affairs, Addis Ababa: Ethiopian Foreign Relations Strategic Studies Institute.

Mason, R. 2015. Foreign Policy in Iran and Saudi Arabia. Economics and Diplomacy in the Middle East, London: I.B. Tauris.

McSparren, J., et al. 2014. ‘Qatar’s global investment strategy for diversification and security in the post-financial crisis era’, Centre on governance research paper series (No. 02/17/EN), Ottowa: University of Ottawa.

McSparren, J., et al. 2015. ‘Contours of Qatar–Sub-Saharan Africa Relations: Shedding Light on Trends and Prospects’ in: Mapping GCC foreign policy resources, recipients and regional effects, ed. Young, K., and Khatib, L., London, London School of Economics and Political Science.

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Neumayer, E. 2003. ‘What Factors Determine the Allocation of Aid by Arab Countries and Multilateral Agencies?’, Journal of Development Studies, 39(4), 134–147.

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Nonneman, G. 2004. ‘Analyzing the Foreign Policies of the Middle East and North Africa: a Conceptual Framework’, in: Analyzing Middle Eastern Foreign Policies, ed. Nonneman, G., London: Routledge, 6–18.

Ochsenwald, W. 1980. 'Muslim-European Conflict in the Hijaz: The Slave Trade Controversy, 1840-1895’, Middle Eastern Studies 13, 115–126.

Østebø, T. 2007. The Question of Becoming: Islamic Reform-Movements in Contemporary Ethiopia, Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute.

Østebø, T. 2009. ‘Religious Change and Islam: The Emergence of the Salafi Movement in Bale, Ethiopia’, in: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference of Ethiopian Studies, ed. Ege, S. Aspen, H., Teferra, B., et al., Trondheim, 2009.

Parks, T., and Cole, W. 2010. Political Settlements: Implications for International Development Policy and Practice, San Francisco: Asia Foundation.

Plaut, M. 2016. Understanding Eritrea: Inside Africa’s Most Repressive State, New York, Oxford University Press.

Richard R. 2015. War in Yemen: The African Dimension, April 2015 Briefing, London: Oxford Research Group.

Roberts, D. 2008. “Qatari Mediation,” University of Durham.

Roberts, D. 2014. ‘Qatar and the Brotherhood’, Survival, 56(4) 23–32.

Roessler, P. 2016. Ethnic Politics and State Power in Africa: The Logic of the Coup-Civil War Trap, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Roxburgh, C., et al. 2010. ‘Lions on the Move: The progress and potential of African Economies’, New York: McKinsey Global Institute.

Runge, C.F., and Runge, C.P. 2010. ‘Against the Grain: Why failing to complete the green revolution could bring the next famine’, Foreign Affairs, 89, 8–15.

Serels, S. 2012. 'Famines of War: The Red Sea Grain Market and Famine in Eastern Sudan, 1889–1891’, Northeast African Studies, 12(1), 73–94.

Shiferaw, L. 2016. ‘The role of Gulf states in peace and security and development in Sub-Saharan Africa’, IAI Working Papers 16, Roma: Instituto Afari Internazionali.

Stockmans, J. 2014. ‘Ethiopian Muslims in the Public Space of Addis Ababa since 1991’, master’s thesis, University of Gent.

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Tok, E., et al. 2014. ‘Arab development aid and the new dynamic of multilateralism: Towards better Governance?’ European Scientific Journal, 1, 591–604.

Ulrichsen, K. 2011. ‘Repositioning the GCC States in the changing global order’, Journal of Arabian Studies 1, 231–247.

Ulrichsen, K. 2017. The United Arab Emirates. Power, Politics and Policymaking, London: Routledge.

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UN Monitoring Group on Somalia and Eritrea. 2017. Report of the Monitoring Group on Somalia and Eritrea pursuant to Security Council resolution 2317 (2016), S/2017/924, New York: United Nations.

Van Veen, E. 2016. Perpetuating power: Ethiopia’s political settlement and the organization of security, CRU report, The Hague: Clingendael.

Vaughan, S. 2003. Ethnicity and Power in Ethiopia, PhD diss., University of Edinburgh.

Vaughan, S., and Tronvoll, K. 2014. ‘The Culture of Power in Contemporary Ethiopian Political Life’, Sida Studies (10).

Verhoeven, H. 2011. 'Climate Change, Conflict and Development in Sudan: Global Neo-Malthusian Narratives and Local Power Struggles’, Development and Change, 42(3), 679–707.

Verhoeven, H. 2012. ‘Sudan and Its Agricultural Revival: A Regional Breadbasket at Last or Another Mirage in the Desert?’, in: Handbook of African Land- and Watergrabs, ed. Allen, T., et al. London: Routledge, 43–56.

Verhoeven, H. 2015. Africa's Next Hegemon: Behind Ethiopia's Power Plays, Foreign Affairs Snapshot April 12, New York: Council on Foreign Relations.

Verhoeven, H. 2015. Water, Civilisation and Power in Sudan. The Political Economy of Military-Islamist State-Building, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Verhoeven, H. 2016. ‘African Dam Building as Extraversion: the case of Sudan’s Dam Programme, Nubian Resistance and the Saudi-Iranian Proxy War in Yemen’, African Affairs, 115(461), 562–573.

Verhoeven, H. 2016. ’Behind the Violence in Ethiopia’, Foreign Affairs Snapshot August 29, New York: Council on Foreign Relations .

Verhoeven, H. 2016. ‘The Gulf States in the Political Economy of the Nile Basin: A Historical Overview’, in: Water Politics in the Nile River Basin. Challenges and New Investments, ed. Sandström, E., Østigård, T., and Jagerskog, A., London: I.B. Tauris, 53–72.

Verhoeven, H., and Woertz, E. 2016. ’Saudi Arabia and the Horn of Africa’, in: Saudi Arabian Foreign Policy: Conflict and Cooperation, ed. Patrick, N., London: I.B. Tauris.

Villanger, E. 2007. ‘Arab Foreign Aid: Disbursement patterns, Aid Policies and Motives’, Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute.

Westad, A. 2005. The Global Cold War: Third World Interventions and the Making of our Times, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Wilson, R. 1979. The Economies of the Middle East: The Ghost of Malthus Lingers on, London: MacMillan Press.

Witty, D. 2001. ‘A regular Army in counterinsurgency operations: Egypt in North Yemen, 1962-1967’, Journal of Military History, 65(2), 401–439.

Woertz, E. 2013. Oil for Food. The Global Food Crisis and the Middle East, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Woertz, E. 2013. ‘The Governance of Gulf Agro-investments’, Globalizations, 10, 87–104.

Woertz, E. 2014. ‘Environment, Food Security and Conflict Narratives in the Middle East’, Global Environment, 7(2), 490–516.

World Bank. 2010. Arab Development Assistance: Four Decades of Cooperation, Washington DC: World Bank Group.

World Bank. 2017. World Development Report 2017: Governance and the Law, Washington DC: World Bank Group.

Young, K. 2014. The Political Economy of Energy, Finance and Security in the United Arab Emirates, New York: Palgrave MacMillan.

Záhořík, J. 2017. ‘Reconsidering Ethiopia’s ethnic politics in the light of the Addis Ababa Master Plan and anti-governmental protests.’ The Journal of the Middle East and Africa 8(3), 257-272.

7.2 Press, media and digital sources

African Arguments

Al Araby

Al Jazeera





Chatham House Resource Trade Earth

CNN Edition

Ethiopian Herald

Ethiopian Satellite Television and Radio

Financial Times

Foreign Policy




Middle East Business Intelligence

Middle East Monitor

Orient XXI

Qatar National Bank

Quartz Africa


Riyadh Post

Sudan Tribune

The Economist

The Ethiopian Herald

The Guardian

The Horn Diplomat

The New York Times

The Reporter Ethiopia

The Washington Post

VOA News


World Politics Review