On 3 November 2019, for example, the deputy-mayor of Djibou was murdered. Le Roux, P. 2019. Responding to the Rise in Violent Extremism in the Sahel. Africa Center
Leclercq, S. and Matagne, G. 2020. ‘‘With or Without You’: The Governance of (Local) Security and the Koglweogo Movement in Burkina Faso.’ International Journal of Security & Development 9(1): p. 1–22.
International Crisis Group. 2020. Burkina Faso: Stopping the Spiral of Violence. Africa report 287, Brussels: ICG.
UNOWAS. 2018. Pastoralism and Security in West Africa and the Sahel. Towards Peaceful Coexistence. As elaborated in section one, many pastoralists are very much afraid of stumbling upon state security forces while they move with their animals. The vast majority of pastoralists we interviewed in all three regions explained that attacks by both the FDS and terrorists and land encroachment ranked as the biggest constraints to successful transhumance and mobility.