The criteria for each of the four categories discussed in this report are outlined below. All ACLED event types are included to construct the categories below.

Farmer-herder conflict:

Farmers and/or herders (pastoralists) are usually coded in the associated actors columns of the ACLED data and/or referenced in the notes. When both actors appear, events are coded as farmer-herder conflict unless the notes suggest otherwise;

Farmer-herder conflict is observed when other elements associated with agriculture and livestock (e.g. cattle, herding, cotton, etc) are mentioned in the notes, particularly as a motive for the act of violence in the notes section;

Settlement of scores between farmers and herders indicated by mention of acts of retaliation from either side; explicit mention of willingness to take revenge due to past grievances;

Violence perpetrated against pastoralists related to accusations of trespassing, destruction of crops, etc. (often hunting societies represent the interests of the farming community);

Violence perpetrated against farmers related to accusations of cattle theft, stealing of crops, etc.

Land disputes:

The notes explicitly mention land ownership conflict;

The notes explicitly mention that disorder ensued due to court cases over land;

Trespassing cases explicitly mentioning land ownership issues (e.g. conflict over land titles).

Violence around parks and nature conservation:

Park rangers and forests guards are coded as actors or associated actors in the ACLED dataset and/or are part of fatalities in case of killings;

Armed clashes between poachers/hunters/rangers;

Mention in the notes of natural parks and/or organisations that monitor parks (APN, Pendjari, Park W, etc.);

Conflict in border towns are assessed in cases of competition for resources.


None of the above;

Violence against civilians by government officials, especially linked to political competition. Mention of political parties, syndicates (student or professional associations), protests, demonstrations and/or riots;

Violence and protests of civilians against government, often in relation to controversial decisions;

Political events that have elements of banditry in them (e.g. abduction against ransom, armed robberies, piracy, etc – unknown gunmen);

Violence due to accusations of sorcery/voodooism;

Public lynching of individuals who have committed a crime such as stealing, rape, etc.