EU Forum

EU Integration

Abandonment of the centre ground

25 May 2016 - 21:35
Source: foxnews.com

The Austrian presidential election brought the message straight home. The centre seems to be breaking up. Even though a respectable Green outpaced an energetic right-wing populist by the slimmest of margins, the outcome left no doubt about its symbolism. The Socialist and Christian Democratic parties, the traditional contenders for power in Austria, found themselves sidelined. And the populist right has moved into the heart of the political system. Successive crises have prepared the electoral ground for its message, which, both externally and domestically, is nationalistic and socially defensive.

Is Austria an exception in its apparent double rejection of Muslim immigration and European integration? Or are we dealing with a broader phenomenon? Yes and no. Clearly quite a few European countries are currently witnessing a rise of discontent, which is finding expression on the margins of the political system. (In fact, the current primaries in the US seem to present a similar picture in America.) The more ‘established’ parties find themselves severely challenged and under pressure. Most of this is coming from the right: the Front National in France, the Alternative für Deutschland in Germany and the Party for Law and Justice in Poland are just very visible examples. But Spain, Italy and even France show that today’s resentment is not the monopoly of the far right; it is also occurring on the left of the spectrum. So far, however, it is only in Austria - and previously in Greece and Central & Eastern Europe - that these movements are on the verge of toppling the traditional balance of power.

Are there common causes for this revolutionary unrest? Of course, local circumstances play a role, and there are also age differences between these protest movements. But generally there appear to be several new lines of conflict that are emerging all over Europe and managing to overshadow the left-right conflict that is institutionalised in most countries’ political systems. Not that right and left have disappeared as distinctive categories, but circumstances have propelled them into new guises. These new juxtapositions appear to result from the dynamic of globalisation. The financial crisis of 2008 symbolised unleashed capitalism, with its deeply undermining effects on employment, social security and a sustainable welfare state. The euro crisis of 2010 prescribed the painful recipe of budget discipline and structural adjustment to keep the common European currency afloat. Modernisation of socioeconomic systems seemed to be inescapable for both the left and the right, helping to blur their distinctive traits. ‘Grand coalitions’ between parties of the right and the left, such as those assembled in countries like Germany, Austria and the Netherlands, although not unsuccessful in their political management, accentuated this fading of ideological differences. Immigration, with its threatening effects on low-skilled labour and social entitlements, added to this development and helped create new political conflicts.

What will be the effects of this erosion of the political ‘centre’? Again, national differences can play a decisive role, for example between Germany and France. But, certainly in the short run, right-wing populist movements can be expected to continue encroaching on the power position of the centre parties. They will do this both by using the existing representative democratic system and by advocating referendums and other forms of ‘direct democracy’. They may be successful in this, even managing to create ‘illiberal democracies’, such as those that have already come into existence in some new EU member states. In response, the established parties will either try to isolate these movements in a powerless ‘quarantine’ or, alternatively, co-opt them into government coalitions and thereby seek to neutralise their electoral attraction. Mobilising the ‘democratic majority’ against the populists or making them part of the ‘system’ could be viable defensive options for the centre parties.

In the longer run it would, however, be more sensible to take people’s concerns and resentments seriously and give them a feasible political expression. This may cause traditional distinctions between left and right to reappear and require realignments on both sides of the political system. The same would need to be achieved within the EU, through enhanced democratisation of Europe.   

127 Comments

Load comments

http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ judi bola
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ situs judi bola resmi
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ situs judi bola
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ judi bola online
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ agen judi bola
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ judi bola terpercaya
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ bandar judi bola terbesar di dunia
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ judi bola 88
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ kumpulan situs judi bola terpercaya
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ situs judi bola terbesar
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ 7meter judi bola
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ situs judi bola terpercaya
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ agen judi bola terpercaya
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ judi bola piala dunia 2018
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ judi bola macau
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ judi online bola
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ cara main judi bola
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ judi bola indonesia
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ judi bola 365
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ cara bermain judi bola
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ cara daftar judi bola
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ rahasia judi bola jiki
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ judi bola adil
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ agen judi bola online
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ daftar situs judi bola resmi
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ cara menang judi bola
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ v88 judi bola
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ rumus judi bola cap jiki
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ situs judi bola online terpercaya
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ judi bola gila
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ bandar judi bola
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ daftar judi bola
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ judi bola on line
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ bola judi
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ bandar judi bola terpercaya
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ prediksi judi bola
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ agen judi bola terbaik dan terpercaya
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ agen judi bola terbaik
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ daftar situs judi bola terpercaya
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ daftar situs judi bola online terpercaya
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ bandar agen taruhan judi bola sbobet online
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ judi bola 123
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ judi bola m88
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ judi bola minimal bet 5000
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ judi bola setan
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ website judi bola terpercaya
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ judi bola tangkas online
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ judi bola online terpercaya
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ situs judi bola online
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ agen judi bola termurah dan terpercaya
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ rumus judi bola over under
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ judi bola deposit 10rb
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ situs judi bola terbesar di asia
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ cara menang judi bola parlay
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ forum judi bola
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ primbon judi bola adil
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ link judi bola
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ judi bola parlay
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ menang judi bola ratusan juta
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ cara menang judi bola over under
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ judi bola minimal deposit 25000
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ primbon judi bola setan
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ daftar judi bola online
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ web judi bola
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ situs judi bola terbesar di dunia
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ aplikasi judi bola
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ daftar agen judi bola resmi
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ game judi bola
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ judi bola gelinding
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ judi bola deposit 25 ribu
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ tips judi bola
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ aoncash judi bola
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ cara judi bola online
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ situs judi bola terbaik
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ aplikasi judi bola apk android
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ parlay judi bola
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ situs judi bola internasional
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ bandar judi bola online terpercaya
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ judi bola online ditangkap
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ agen judi bola resmi
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ cara judi bola
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ rumus menang judi bola
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ aplikasi judi bola android
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ cara bermain judi bola supaya menang
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ bandar agen taruhan judi bola
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ judi bola deposit 25rb
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ trik judi bola setan
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ trik judi bola
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ bandar judi bola internasional
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ bola online judi
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ rumus odds judi bola
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ m88 judi bola
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ cara menang judi bola adil
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ judi bola terbaik
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ situs judi bola resmi indonesia
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ bandar judi bola terbaik
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ daftar judi bola terpercaya
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ cara main judi bola online
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ pasaran judi bola
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ judi bola tangkas
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ bursa judi bola
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ situs judi online bola
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ judi bola online legal
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ cheat menang judi bola
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ akun judi bola
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ situs judi bola resmi dan terpercaya
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ judi bola minimal bet 1000
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ lapak judi bola
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ judi bola tanpa deposit
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ cara bermain judi bola online
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ kalah judi bola ratusan juta
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ cara daftar judi bola online
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ judi bola resmi
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ bandar judi bola online
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ situs judi bola asia
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ cara main judi bola 88
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ mantra judi bola adil
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ judi bola terpercaya kaskus
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ kalah judi bola
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ prediksi judi bola malam ini
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ agen judi bola deposit termurah
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ judi bola online m88
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ situs judi bola online terbesar
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ agen judi bola bonus 100
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ trik menang judi bola
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ aplikasi judi bola online
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ judi bola online terbesar
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ agen judi bola terpercaya di indonesia
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ judi bola bola
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ macau judi bola
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ tips menang judi bola
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ cara pasang judi bola
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ liga365 pusat judi bola
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ agen judi bola sbobet
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ mantra main judi bola gelinding
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ judi bola deposit 10 ribu
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ cara menang main judi bola
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ agen judi bola online terpercaya
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ situs judi bola indonesia
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ pur puran judi bola hari ini
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ rahasia judi bola gelinding
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ bunuh diri kalah judi bola
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ prediksi judi bola hari ini
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ cara menang judi bola sbobet
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ judi bola bri
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ prediksi bandar judi bola
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ judi bola jiki
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ judi bola terpercaya di indonesia
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ sportbook
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ bonus deposit sportbook
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ sportbook asia
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ freebet sportbook
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ afb365 sportbook
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ analisa odds sportbook
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ sportbook logo
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ bola368.com agen judi bola terpercaya promo 10 all games sportbook
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ bonus deposit 100% sportbook
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ ibosport.com situs sportbook terfavorit no.1 di indonesia
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ agen sportbook terpercaya
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ sportbook wallpaper
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ bonus new member sportbook
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ sportbook dafabet
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ sportbook mmbet 168.com
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ sportbook m88
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ judi sportbook online
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ sportbook bonus deposit
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ bonus sportbook 100
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ Situs Judi Online Terpercaya
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ Cara daftar judi online
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ Cara bermain judi online
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ Cara bermain casino online
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ Royal kasino
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ Royalkasino
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ Dragontiger
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ Baccarat Online
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ Agen Judi Baccarat Online
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ Agen Judi Slot Game
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ Agen judi Dragon tiger
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ Royal Kasino
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ Agen Judi Casino Online
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ Casino Online
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ Situs Judi Casino Online Terpercaya
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ Sabung Ayam Online
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ Situs Judi Dadu Online
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ Agen Judi Sicbo Online
http://www.pastiuntung.net/agen-judi-sportsbook/ Agen Judi Roulette Online

Add new comment

Your name: Anonymous

Restricted HTML

  • Allowed HTML tags: <a href hreflang> <em> <strong> <cite> <blockquote cite> <code> <ul type> <ol start type> <li> <dl> <dt> <dd> <h2 id> <h3 id> <h4 id> <h5 id> <h6 id>
  • Lines and paragraphs break automatically.
  • Web page addresses and email addresses turn into links automatically.

Plain text

  • No HTML tags allowed.
  • Lines and paragraphs break automatically.
  • Web page addresses and email addresses turn into links automatically.