EU Forum

Security

The CSDP train leaves the station. So what?

07 Dec 2017 - 16:14
Source: Wikmedia Commons - NL Army Days

Anyone who has recently attended a security or defence conference is likely to have heard EU officials claim that more has been achieved in the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) in the last 12 months than in the previous 12 years. Following last month’s notification to the Council on Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO), a development described by High Representative Federica Mogherini as “probably the most important moment for European defence in decades,” she or he is also likely to have heard variations on the EU’s favourite metaphor: the defence train has left the station.

Certainly, there has been substantial movement on defence in the EU. The launch of three internal initiatives – PESCO, the Coordinated Annual Review of Defence (CARD) under the auspices of the European Defence Agency (EDA), and the Commission’s European Defence Action Plan (EDAP), which includes through the European Defence Fund (EDF) the prospect of EU funding for defence for the first time – together with a joint agreement at NATO’s Warsaw Summit on EU-NATO relations offer opportunities for real progress.

Praise for Estonia’s Presidency

Estonia, which currently holds the Presidency of the Council of the EU, has been justifiably praised for its defence agenda. Thrust into the driving seat six months early by the UK’s withdrawal from the rota, Estonia has shrewdly cast its Presidency as one in which key decisions would be taken. And in this, assisted by a refreshed Franco-German motor to drive things forward, the Estonians can claim success. In addition to the formal PESCO decision, which should be taken by the Council this month alongside the agreement of the first list of PESCO projects, the Estonian Presidency’s achievements are also likely to include the expansion of the Athena mechanism for financing the common costs of EU operations, and a Council position on the proposed regulation establishing the European Defence Industrial Development Programme.

The road to real progress in European defence

However, real progress in European defence will not be made in the taking of decisions, but in their implementation (which Estonia can happily leave in the hands of later Presidencies). The fact remains that despite the fanfares, the EU is not measurably closer to being able to meet its military level of ambition than it was when the Global Strategy was launched 18 months ago. The key requirement is for more European military capability. This in turn calls for more and better defence spending by the member states, as well as more cooperation between them. While cooperation is the watchword of the EU’s new defence initiatives, only the coming years will reveal whether these initiatives can motivate the member states to work more closely together; in other words, whether the EU can add value in a field in which accomplishments have been limited and largely due to bi- or mini-lateral, rather than EU-wide, arrangements.

On the face of it, the EU has not made a good start. The PESCO notification text is weak and has been roundly, and rightly, criticised by influential commentators. In the run-up to the launch of PESCO, much has been made of its legally binding nature, but this is only of value if the member states agree to be bound by things that will make a difference. A legally binding lowest common denominator agreement will be little, if at all, better than the entirely voluntary one that exists today.

PESCO: a starting point that can be built upon?

On the other hand, it is fair to note that the PESCO agreement is only a framework – a starting point that can be built upon. In managing the expectations of its stakeholders, the EU has done itself few favours in claiming success when all it is delivering is process. The list of PESCO projects to be published this month will offer better indications of PESCO’s prospects. To be credible, this list will need to contain new commitments, not just the rebadging of existing projects, and projects that will deliver capability to meet the EU’s long-recognised capability shortfalls, not just projects that enhance operational cooperation. Regrettably, early indications are that the projects to be put to the December Council will only partially meet these criteria.

It should also be recalled that PESCO is part of a package. There is a great deal of sense in the idea that requirements are identified by the EDA’s Capability Development Plan, that PESCO provides a framework for delivery of these requirements, that the EDF serves as financial underpinning, and that CARD provides a forum for review and corrective action.

Another measure of success, then, will be the extent to which this package works together. The EU institutions insist that cooperation among themselves is excellent, but the tendency of organisations to advance and protect their own interests at the expense of the greater good is well-documented. As an example, while it might have been sensible for an exclusive PESCO containing just a handful of member states to conduct a dedicated review process, it is questionable that a PESCO of (probably) 25 member states should require both an annual review of national implementation plans inside PESCO and a CARD process outside it. Some attention will need to be paid to this and other points at which the institutions rub against each other.

There will be other key tests of implementation too, for example the extent to which the review processes will be able to spotlight the performance of individual member states, rather than the collective performance that less enthusiastic individual states can hide behind (note here that the only quantified commitments in the PESCO notification are annotated “collective benchmark”) and the degree to which the industrial interests of the smaller member states can be satisfied by the EDAP. Frustratingly, 19 years since the EU defence dimension was launched at St Malo, it is still too early to know if this venture can succeed.

Towards a meaningful destination

It does not matter if the defence train has left the station. What matters is that those on board find the will to ensure it reaches a meaningful destination soon, rather than endlessly circling the same tracks.

Tony Lawrence is a Research Fellow at the International Centre for Defence and Security, Tallinn, Estonia. The views expressed here are his own.

913 Comments

Load comments

Bissell Vacuum Cleaners
Tue, 10/13/2020 - 02:21

Permalink

"Single sound bar provides better sound quality compared to your TV.The
<a href=""https://www.bissellvacuumcleaners.com/"">Bissell Vacuum Cleaners</a> is an easy solution, with advanced technologies that deliver the clear audio your TV can’t.
Dialogue mode to make every word and detail stand out
Bluetooth connectivity to wirelessly stream music from any of your devices
One connection to your TV. Optical audio input (digital); Coaxial audio input (digital); 3.5 mm aux input (analog)
Universal remote controls TV, bass, Bluetooth connections and more
Speaker:2.6 H x 21.6 W x 3.4 D (3.73 lbs), Remote control:4.1 H x 1.6 W x 0.4 D (5 oz)"

Julio Martin
Tue, 10/13/2020 - 11:57

Permalink

http://www.transkerja.com/2019/06/konfigurasi-ftp-server.html konfigurasi ftp server
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/01/hotel-zodiak-jakarta-cawang.html zodiak hotel mt haryono
http://www.transkerja.com/2014/11/lowongan-kerja-pt-sumber-alfaria.html lowongan kerja alfamart cikokol
http://www.transkerja.com/2015/04/lowongan-kerja-pt-denso-indonesia-gro… pt denso indonesia cibitung
http://www.transkerja.com/2014/10/cara-memilih-jasa-penyalur-tenaga-ker… jasa penyedia tenaga kerja
http://www.transkerja.com/2014/02/lowongan-kerja-pt-valdo-sumber-daya.h… pt valdo sumberdaya mandiri
http://www.transkerja.com/2015/07/cara-mudah-membuat-lamaran-kerja-dan-… cara buat lamaran kerja online
http://www.transkerja.com/2018/02/cara-menghilangkan-garis-halus-di-baw… cara menghilangkan garis dibawah mata
http://www.transkerja.com/2018/02/cara-menghilangkan-garis-halus-di-baw… cara hilangkan kerutan dibawah mata
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/02/fungsi-thermostat.html fungsi termostat
http://www.transkerja.com/2014/12/lowongan-kerja-pt-mitsubishi-electric… pt mitsubishi electric automotive indonesia
http://www.transkerja.com/2014/12/pt-sumitomo-shi-construction-machiner… sumitomo heavy industries indonesia
http://www.transkerja.com/2020/03/cara-memasang-lantai-kayu-parket.html cara memasang lantai kayu
http://www.transkerja.com/2018/11/solid-surface.html harga solid surface
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/05/cat-epoxy-lantai-propan.html epoxy lantai propan
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/05/cat-epoxy-lantai-beton.html harga cat lantai beton
http://www.transkerja.com/2020/02/daftar-hotel-di-lembang-bandung.html hotel di jalan raya lembang
http://www.transkerja.com/2014/02/pt-chiyoda-kogyo-indonesia.html pt chiyoda kogyo indonesia
http://www.transkerja.com/2014/02/info-daftar-lowongan-kerja-terbaru-di… loker surya cipta
http://www.transkerja.com/2020/06/jasa-service-ac-tanjung-barat-jakarta… service ac tanjung barat
http://www.transkerja.com/2014/09/lowongan-kerja-pt-toyota-tsusho.html toyota tsusho mechanical & engineering service indonesia
http://www.transkerja.com/2014/03/pt-astra-honda-motor.html ahm cibitung
http://www.transkerja.com/2020/04/cara-membaca-kode-ukuran-ban-mobil.ht… membaca ukuran ban mobil
http://www.transkerja.com/2014/10/lowongan-kerja-pt-best-denki-indonesi… best denki indonesia
http://www.transkerja.com/2020/02/daftar-hotel-di-lembang-bandung.html villa de rosa lembang
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/05/epoxy-lantai-gudang.html harga epoxy lantai
http://www.transkerja.com/2014/02/info-program-magang-in-japan-pt-jiaec… pt jiaec depok
http://www.transkerja.com/2017/10/manfaat-masker-kunyit-dan-kayu-cendan… manfaat minyak cendana untuk wajah
http://www.transkerja.com/2020/02/daftar-hotel-di-lembang-bandung.html hotel bintang 5 di lembang
http://www.transkerja.com/2020/08/jasa-pembuatan-folding-gate-tegal.html ukuran tinggi pintu folding gate
http://www.transkerja.com/2020/04/jasa-sewa-motor-jakarta-utara.html sewa motor di jakarta utara
http://www.transkerja.com/2014/06/tugas-dan-fungsi-staff-production.html tugas dan tanggung jawab staff inventory
http://www.transkerja.com/2014/02/lowongan-kerja-pt-valdo-sumber-daya.h… valdo outsourcing
http://www.transkerja.com/2020/04/jasa-sewa-motor-palembang-motorbike.h… rental motor palembang
http://www.transkerja.com/2014/09/daftar-info-terbaru-lowongan-kerja.ht… pt mayora mm2100
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/06/virtual-data-room.html data room service providers
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/06/virtual-data-room.html virtual data room providers
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/06/virtual-data-room.html data room providers
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/06/what-is-full-service-broker-definitio… full service broker definition
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/06/what-is-deep-discount-broker-definiti… discount broker definition
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/06/hosted-sftp-server.html hosted sftp
http://www.transkerja.com/2020/02/carpet-cleaning-in-colorado-springs-c… cheap carpet cleaning colorado springs
http://www.transkerja.com/2020/02/carpet-cleaning-in-colorado-springs-c… asap carpet cleaning colorado springs
http://www.transkerja.com/2020/02/carpet-cleaning-in-colorado-springs-c… best carpet cleaning colorado springs
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/06/what-is-customs-broker-definition.html customs broker definition
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/06/what-is-customs-broker-definition.html custom broker definition
http://www.transkerja.com/2020/02/carpet-cleaning-in-colorado-springs-c… aaa masterclean colorado springs
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/08/structured-settlement-buyout-calculat… structured settlement buyout calculator
http://www.transkerja.com/2020/03/carpet-cleaning-rental-menards.html?m… carpet cleaner rental menards
http://www.transkerja.com/2020/08/acupuncture-in-wausau-wi.html acupuncture wausau wi
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/06/what-is-deep-discount-broker-definiti… deep discount broker
http://www.transkerja.com/2020/08/austin-webb-songs-download-mp3.html austin webb songs
http://www.transkerja.com/2020/08/acupuncture-in-visalia-ca.html acupuncture visalia
http://www.transkerja.com/2018/09/natural-thin-stone-veneer-wall-panels… weep screed lowes
http://www.transkerja.com/2020/08/agnetha-faltskog-songs-download-mp3.h… google song downloads
http://www.transkerja.com/2020/08/perbedaan-power-steering-hidrolik-dan… kaku kayak reviews
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/07/how-to-forget-someone-you-see-everyda… how to get over someone you see everyday
http://www.transkerja.com/2020/02/daftar-hotel-di-lembang-bandung.html hotel di lembang bandung
http://www.transkerja.com/2020/08/acupuncture-in-kingsport-tn.html acupuncture kingsport tn
http://www.transkerja.com/2015/04/lowongan-kerja-pt-denso-indonesia-gro… www denso co id
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/06/what-is-joint-venture-broker-definiti… joint venture broker
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/08/what-are-symptoms-of-bad-distributor… bad distributor cap symptoms
http://www.transkerja.com/2020/08/aaron-lewis-songs-download-mp3.html aaron lewis download
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/06/meaning-of-zumba-what-is-zumba-concep… definition of zumba
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/08/what-are-symptoms-of-bad-distributor… symptoms of bad distributor cap and rotor
http://www.transkerja.com/2020/04/metode-daftar-bri-internet-banking-ak… bri ib
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/06/what-is-stockbroker-definition.html definition of stockbroker
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/06/what-is-commodity-broker-definition.h… commodity broker definition
http://www.transkerja.com/2020/08/arika-kane-songs-download-mp3.html arika kane make it free mp3 download
http://www.transkerja.com/2020/08/aaron-lewis-songs-download-mp3.html aaron lewis mp3 download
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/05/southern-cross-lyrics.html daylight again lyrics
http://www.transkerja.com/2020/04/metode-daftar-bri-internet-banking-ak… ib bri
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/08/what-are-symptoms-of-bad-distributor… cap and rotor symptoms
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/08/trichophagy-what-it-is-causes-and.html trichophagy
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/08/what-are-symptoms-of-bad-distributor… bad distributor cap and rotor
http://www.transkerja.com/2020/02/carpet-cleaning-in-new-york-city-ny.h… pure green carpet cleaning nyc
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/08/what-are-symptoms-of-bad-distributor… distributor cap symptoms
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/08/what-are-symptoms-of-bad-distributor… symptoms of a bad distributor cap
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/06/meaning-of-zumba-what-is-zumba-concep… zumba meaning
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/05/twenty-one-pilots-taking-my-time-on-m… taking my time on my ride song
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/08/what-are-symptoms-of-bad-distributor… symptoms of a bad distributor
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/05/twenty-one-pilots-taking-my-time-on-m… taking my time on my ride lyrics
http://www.transkerja.com/2020/08/arc-angels-songs-download-mp3.html arc angels songs
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/06/what-is-ritel-retail-broker-definitio… retail broker definition
http://www.transkerja.com/2020/08/aerosmith-songs-download-mp3.html aerosmith songs download
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/05/summer-walker-girls-need-love-remix-l… summer walker girls need love remix lyrics
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/06/meaning-of-zumba-what-is-zumba-concep… zumba dance origin
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/05/logic-click-bait-lyrics.html clickbait logic lyrics
http://www.transkerja.com/2020/08/avicii-songs-download-mp3.html avicii songs download
http://www.transkerja.com/2020/08/asap-rocky-songs-download-mp3.html asap rocky song download
http://www.transkerja.com/2020/04/metode-daftar-bri-internet-banking-ak… ib.bri
http://www.transkerja.com/2020/08/air-supply-songs-download-mp3.html air supply songs download
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/07/how-to-forget-someone-you-see-everyda… how to get over someone you see every day
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/06/what-is-sponsorship-broker-definition… sponsoring broker definition
http://www.transkerja.com/2020/08/aries-songs-download-mp3.html music download aries
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/06/how-to-delete-instagram-account-forev… delete instagram forever
http://www.transkerja.com/2017/05/apa-itu-mekanisme-antikythera-baca.ht… apa itu mekanisme antikythera?
http://www.transkerja.com/2014/12/lowongan-kerja-pt-rapipack-asritama.h… rapipack
http://www.transkerja.com/2015/12/pt-kawan-lama-sejahtera.html kwan lama
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/06/what-you-need-to-know-about-minimalis… minimalist traditional house
http://www.transkerja.com/2020/08/air-supply-songs-download-mp3.html best of air supply songs free download
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/08/what-are-symptoms-of-bad-distributor… what are the symptoms of a bad distributor?
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/05/twenty-one-pilots-taking-my-time-on-m… i am taking my time on my ride
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/07/6-characteristics-of-envious-people.h… characteristics of envy
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/06/how-to-decor-minimalist-bedroom-on-a-… minimalist bedroom on a budget
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/07/6-characteristics-of-envious-people.h… characteristics of an envious person
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/06/how-to-delete-instagram-account-forev… how to delete an instagram account forever
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/05/logic-click-bait-lyrics.html logic clickbait lyrics
http://www.transkerja.com/2020/08/assuming-we-survive-songs-download-mp… assuming we survive albums
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/05/summer-walker-girls-need-love-remix-l… girls need love remix lyrics
http://www.transkerja.com/2020/04/metode-daftar-bri-internet-banking-ak… ibbri
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/05/loren-allred-never-enough-lyrics.html the greatest showman never enough lyrics
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/05/logic-click-bait-lyrics.html clickbait lyrics logic
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/06/how-to-install-optical-audio-cables.h… how to install optical audio cable
http://www.transkerja.com/2018/01/wallpaper-hd-sepeda-motor-sport-untuk… wallpaper motor sport
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/06/how-to-install-optical-audio-cables.h… are there different types of optical audio cables
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/05/loren-allred-never-enough-lyrics.html loren allred never enough lyrics
http://www.transkerja.com/2020/08/alexander-ludwig-songs-download-mp3.h… alexander ludwig songs
http://www.transkerja.com/2020/08/avril-lavigne-songs-download-mp3.html avril lavigne songs download
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/06/meaning-of-zumba-what-is-zumba-concep… meaning of zumba
http://www.transkerja.com/2016/07/natural-salicylic-acid.html salicylic acid fruits
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/06/what-is-information-broker-definition… information broker definition
http://www.transkerja.com/2020/02/carpet-cleaning-services-in-tampa-flo… dynamic carpet care tampa fl
http://www.transkerja.com/2019/05/logic-click-bait-lyrics.html logic click bait lyrics
http://www.transkerja.com/2020/02/carpet-cleaning-in-colorado-springs-c… purity clean colorado springs
http://www.transkerja.com/2020/08/alabama-shakes-songs-download-mp3.html alabama shakes mp3

EROAbapore
Fri, 10/16/2020 - 10:43

Permalink

The spa salon thai waiting visit one of the varieties massage, is what we do. What is an garshana massage interested in everyone. Change roles massage is the art to give for bliss. You willextremely surprised to that,what variety bliss can learn from choice massage. In spa salon body rub massage masseurs will make sensual energy massage.

How is it done, and is there something exotic? We will tell you all about him that you wanted to know |Our bodywork massage is visited not only by men but also by women, and also by couples. You necessarily want to rejoice only this infinitely … Our main intention this is to please customer enchanting physical balinese massage. Distinctive approach to your desires and claims.

The delightful masseuses our the spa will give you an unforgettable experience. The spa center is a place of rest and relaxation. The Buttock Massage, as in principle, and relaxation, affects on specific area body, what allows customer relax. Give your preference not just to one, but to two masseuses! Choose for yourself master by external data, both professional and professional abilities!

Spa center in Empire State we recommend wonderful Spa rooms with comfortable decoration. These quarters apply be you you are staying with us not attracting the attention of other customers.

We work in NYC. Girls Emily :
[url=https://nude.manhattan-massage.com]nude massage hot[/url]

PACKERS AND MOVERS KOLKATA
Mon, 10/19/2020 - 07:32

Permalink

APL India Packers and Movers are not only Kolkata but one of the best and top packers and movers in India. We are able to keep the promises made to our customers. We are trying to extend our shifting services to all cities of India. All metro cities of India like- Kolkata, Bangalore, Chennai, Hyderabad, Visakhapatnam, Pune, Mumbai, Nashik, Nagpur, Raipur, Bhopal, Indore, Ahmedabad, Baroda, Surat, Vapi, Jaipur, Udaipur, Jodhpur, Bhiwadi, Gurgaon, Delhi , Offers best and safe shifting services in Noida, Chandigarh, Faridabad, Ghaziabad, Lucknow and Patna.
https://www.aplindiapackers.com
https://www.aplindiapackers.com/packers-movers-kolkata.php
https://www.aplindiapackers.com/packers-movers-berhampore.php
https://www.aplindiapackers.com/packers-movers-haldia.php
https://www.aplindiapackers.com/packers-movers-berhampore.php
https://www.aplindiapackers.com/packers-movers-behala.php
https://www.aplindiapackers.com/packers-movers-howrah.php
https://www.aplindiapackers.com/packers-movers-new-town.php
https://www.aplindiapackers.com/packers-movers-pune.php

PACKERS AND MOVERS IN BEHALA
Mon, 10/19/2020 - 07:34

Permalink

APL India Packers & Movers provides the best packing and moving service in Kolkata. All our members are very professional and honest. We offer our customers house shifting service, car shifting service, bike shifting service, domestic shifting service, local shifting service, international shifting service, office shifting service and corporate shifting service at very low prices.
https://www.aplindiapackers.com/packers-movers-behala.php
https://www.aplindiapackers.com/packers-movers-barrackpore.php
https://www.aplindiapackers.com/packers-movers-barasat.php
https://www.aplindiapackers.com/packers-movers-dumdum.php
https://www.aplindiapackers.com/packers-movers-berhampore.php
https://www.aplindiapackers.com/packers-movers-asansol.php

PACKERS AND MOVERS IN HOWRAH
Mon, 10/19/2020 - 07:36

Permalink

Add new comment

Your name: Anonymous

Restricted HTML

  • Allowed HTML tags: <a href hreflang> <em> <strong> <cite> <blockquote cite> <code> <ul type> <ol start type> <li> <dl> <dt> <dd> <h2 id> <h3 id> <h4 id> <h5 id> <h6 id>
  • Lines and paragraphs break automatically.
  • Web page addresses and email addresses turn into links automatically.

Plain text

  • No HTML tags allowed.
  • Lines and paragraphs break automatically.
  • Web page addresses and email addresses turn into links automatically.