EU Forum

EU Integration

The unsustainability of independent fiscal institutions

22 Apr 2016 - 13:37
Source: Jimelovski Platano Macho / Flickr

Since the economic and financial crises, the European Union (EU) is stepping up its efforts to develop credible and reliable independent fiscal institutions (IFIs). As a result EU IFIs are mushrooming in the member states.

In this policy brief the governance framework surrounding the IFIs is assessed. How are IFIs managed, does this correspond with what we know about effective governance frameworks, and what does this tell us about the direction of European integration – European centralisation or decentralised network management –? The answers will shed light on whether there are sufficient safeguards in place that will ensure the sustainability of the IFIs’ development, effectiveness and efficiency.

The author concludes that the governance framework is still underdeveloped and that it lacks a clear view on how coordination and control in a multilevel setting should take place.


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Pilihan bagus lainnya di luar sana saat ini adalah Hulu Live. Hulu sebagai layanan, membangun dirinya sendiri dengan menawarkan acara TV kabel dan jaringan sesuai permintaan sehari setelah ditayangkan, tetapi akhirnya mulai mengembangkan serial mereka sendiri juga, seperti acara pemenang Penghargaan Emmy The Handmaid's Tale . Meskipun kedengarannya tidak kondusif untuk menonton olahraga, di situlah Hulu Live masuk.

Dengan mendaftar ke Hulu Live atau meningkatkan dari layanan dasar $ 7,99, Anda mendapatkan akses ke TV langsung melalui sebagian besar jaringan utama, ditambah beberapa saluran lokal juga. Itu berarti Fox, NBC, CBS, dan saluran olahraga afiliasinya ada di ujung jari Anda di perangkat apa pun. Portabilitas Hulu tidak bisa dilebih-lebihkan. Anda tidak hanya dapat menontonnya di smart TV atau laptop Anda, tetapi melalui aplikasi Hulu juga di perangkat apa pun yang kompatibel.

Hulu mengatur saluran dan jaringan berdasarkan genre, sehingga Anda dapat menemukan game Grup B di Piala Dunia atau beralih di antara game MLB. Hal ini juga mempermudah pencarian tayangan ulang, jadi jika Anda melewatkan momen penting dalam acara olahraga besar seperti Piala Dunia atau Super Bowl, Anda dapat dengan mudah kembali dan menontonnya. Dan sementara Hulu Live mungkin tidak mendapatkan banyak saluran lokal seperti beberapa penawaran lainnya, Anda mendapatkan pilihan film yang lumayan bagus dengannya.

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