About the authors
Fransje Molenaar is a Senior Research Fellow with Clingendael’s Conflict Research Unit. She is specialized in the human smuggling industry in Africa, with a particular focus on the Sahel and Libya.
Jonathan Tossell is a research assistant at Clingendael's Conflict Research Unit. He focuses primarily on local governance and the rule of law in Libya, but is also interested in migration, working with non-state actors, and the promotion of civic space throughout North and East Africa.
Anna Schmauder is is research assistant at Clingendael’s Conflict Research Unit. In this capacity, she focuses on local governance in peacebuilding contexts and the linkage of migration and security dynamics in the Sahel region.
Abdourahmane Idrissa is a political scientist and currently works on the politics of Islam and secularism in Africa, and a modern history of Niger. He works for the African Studies Centre Leiden.
Rida Lyammouri is an associate fellow at Clingendael's Conflict Research Unit. He focuses on the political economy of conflict and conflict prevention.
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