About the authors
Nancy Ezzeddine is a research assistant at Clingendael’s Conflict Research Unit. In this capacity she contributes to the Levant research programme in addition to her research on migration and local governance, closely tracking the powerbase, relations and attitudes of Iraq's Al-Hashd al-Sha'abi and its influence on the development of the Iraqi state.
Matthias Sulz previously was a research assistant at Clingendael’s Conflict Research Unit. In this role he analysed patterns of state performance in function of the interplay between (in)security, fragility and non-state armed groups.
Erwin van Veen is a senior research fellow at Clingendael’s Conflict Research Unit. His research focuses on the political-economy of conflict in the Levant - Lebanon, Syria, Iraq and Palestine/Israel - in the context of Iranian, Turkish and Saudi foreign policy.
Members of the Popular Mobilization Program march in formation with Iraqi national flags during a graduation.
© Cpl. John Baker