This report would not have been possible without the financial support received from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands. We are grateful to Ine Cottyn, for the time and effort she put into collecting the first round of data in April 2019 and for her valuable comments on earlier drafts of the report. We thank the International Organisation for Migration as well as Vincent van Zeijst, chargé d’affaires of the Embassy of the Netherlands in Niamey, for their logistical support during our fieldwork.

We are also indebted to Mounkaila Abdou, who was instrumental in facilitating interviews and focus group discussions during our fieldwork in 2019 and subsequently in adapting our data-collection process amid the Covid-19 outbreak in 2020, during which time he conducted telephone interviews.

A special thanks goes to Aoife McCullough, Ekaterina Golovko and Fransje Molenaar for the time invested in providing comments and suggestions.

Lastly, we are particularly grateful to all the individuals who participated in our focus group discussions and interviews for taking the time to speak to us and share their insights.