About the authors
Rena Netjes studied Arabic and Hebrew. She used to be a correspondent in Egypt and Libya. Currently, she is a research associate at Clingendael’s Conflict Research Unit where her work focuses on governance and security in northern Syria.
Erwin van Veen is a senior research fellow at Clingendael’s Conflict Research Unit where he leads a team that analyses the political economy of conflict in the Middle East. His own work examines the political use of armed groups in processes of state development and geopolitical conflict.
Cover: Kurdish PKK Guerilla
All other photos were made by Rena Netjes