About the authors
Erwin van Veen is a senior research fellow at Clingendael’s Conflict Research Unit where he leads a team that analyses the political economy of conflict in the Middle East. His own work examines the political use of armed groups in processes of state development and geopolitical conflict.
Alba Di Pietrantonio Pellise is an intern at Clingendael’s Conflict Research Unit with a research focus on Iraq, and European Union foreign policy in general.
Nancy Ezzeddine is a researcher at Clingendael’s Conflict Research Unit. In this role she contributes to the Middle East research programme, exploring identity politics and the use of religion as means of political mobilization in the Middle East.
Paolo Napolitano (PhD) is an international consultant with over 10 years of professional experience working in conflict analysis and crisis management for International Organizations (NATO, EU) and prominent research centres (IAI, ISPI, CEMISS). Until October 2020, Dr Napolitano was the lead political and security analyst responsible for the Middle East at NATO’s Strategic Military Headquarters.
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