About the authors
Erwin van Veen is a senior research fellow at Clingendael’s Conflict Research Unit where he leads a team that analyses the political economy of conflict in the Middle East. His own work examines the political use of armed groups in processes of state development and geopolitical conflict.
Nancy Ezzeddine is a research fellow at Clingendael’s Conflict Research Unit. She contributes to its Middle East research programme by exploring identity politics in the region and the use of religion as means of political mobilization.
Rex Langenberg is an intern at Clingendael’s Conflict Research Unit with a particular focus on Iraq.
Engin Yüksel is a research associate at Clingendael’s Security Unit who focuses on Russia’s military posture, doctrine and threats. He is also a PhD candidate at the University of Leiden where he examines Russia’s historical and contemporary approaches to warfare.
Mecca: Khadim-un-nabi Rao / Tehran: Ninara / Ankara: LivinAWestLife / Baghdad: Jim Gordan (USACE)
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