This paper is published by the Armament Industry European Research Group (Ares).
Permanent Structured Cooperation (PeSCo) was launched in December 2017 by 25 EU member states in order to advance defence cooperation in the European Union. The international Armaments Industry European Research Group (Ares) is publising a series of Policy Papers with national views on PeSCo.
Traditionally, the Netherlands has relied more on Atlantis than on Europa for its security and defence. American participation is deemed crucial for guaranteeing European security. Therefore, NATO remains the ‘cornerstone’ of the nation’s security policy. Defence cooperation in the European Union, starting at the turn of the century, received lukewarm support. However, in recent years the Dutch approach to EU defence cooperation has changed. A proactive attitude has replaced the reluctant approach of the past.
In this paper author Dick Zandee, Head of the Security Unit at Clingendael’s Research Department, presents the Dutch perspective on PESCO, which is characterised by pragmatism and focused on concrete output to improve European military capabilities.