This report has originally been published by Istituto Affari Internazionali. Clingendael Senior Research Fellow and Head of Security Dick Zandee contributed chapter two 'More European military capabilities for a more autonomous Europe'.
The year 2020 has been a challenging year not only under a health, social and economic perspective, but also in relation to EU defence. The level of strategic autonomy necessary to satisfy the EU level of ambition has not been reached yet, with consequences on the EU effectiveness to deliver results. Difficulties towards this end have been exacerbated by the effects of COVID-19 and EU member states will need to take into account several factors – from the Brexit impact on defence, towards the lack of military capabilities, to the nuclear landscape in Europe – to let the Strategic Compass be successful in achieving the expected outcomes.
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