Mohammadbagher Forough

Research Associate
Associates are experts in their own field and contractually affiliated with Clingendael. Although associates are not employees of the Clingendael Institute, they comply with all policies that Clingendael staff do.


  • New Silk Road
  • Geostrategic risk management
  • Strategic Foresight


  • Asia

Dr. Mohammadbagher Forough is a research fellow at GIGA - The German Institute of Global and Area Studies (Hamburg, Germany). He is a researcher at Leiden Asia Centre as well as a research associate at Clingendael - Netherlands Institute for International Relations. Formerly, he was an assistant professor (2016-2021) of International Relations and Middle Eastern Studies at Leiden University (The Netherlands). He holds a PhD in International Relations from Groningen University (the Netherlands). His research interests include Middle Eastern/Iranian affairs, China-Middle East relations, geoeconomics (such as the Belt and Road Initiative - BRI), development-security nexus, infrastructure, technology and cybersecurity.


My work