Europe and the EU
The European Union faces internal and external pressures, ranging from illegal migration to imbalances in the Eurozone. Europe’s neighbourhood is turbulent and Brexit raises questions about the future of European integration. Whatever steps are taken, maintaining public support for the EU will be key.
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To strengthen European defense cooperation, two years ago the French President Emmanuel Macron launched the European Intervention Initiative (EI2). His aim was not to create a new standby force, but to ultimately develop a shared strategic culture. A closer analysis of the differences between EI2 members shows the challenges confronting this shared culture-building ambition.