Associates are experts in their own field and contractually affiliated with Clingendael.
Although associates are not employees of the Clingendael Institute, they comply with all policies that Clingendael staff do.
- New Silk Road
- Geostrategic risk management
- Strategic Foresight
Dr. Mohammadbagher Forough is a research fellow at GIGA - The German Institute of Global and Area Studies (Hamburg, Germany). He is a researcher at Leiden Asia Centre as well as a research associate at Clingendael - Netherlands Institute for International Relations. Formerly, he was an assistant professor (2016-2021) of International Relations and Middle Eastern Studies at Leiden University (The Netherlands). He holds a PhD in International Relations from Groningen University (the Netherlands). His research interests include Middle Eastern/Iranian affairs, China-Middle East relations, geoeconomics (such as the Belt and Road Initiative - BRI), development-security nexus, infrastructure, technology and cybersecurity.