EU Forum

Security

Italy, a steady supporter of European defence

06 Nov 2017 - 14:14
Source: Italian EU Naval Force/flickr

Although the media may focus on other features of Italian politics, the reality is that Italy continues to be a strong supporter of European defence cooperation and integration. This support is likely to persist in the next months and years through the uncharted waters of Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO) implementation.

There are many reasons for the Italian support for European defence. First, the “Europa della difesa”, as European defence is often called, is deemed necessary by the Ministry of Defence in order to be more effective in protecting national security. Secondly, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation considers European defence as a long-standing goal of Italian diplomacy, fully in line with the country’s national interests. Thirdly, the domestic defence industry finds it useful to achieve larger European public investments and greater industrial synergies - despite the fact that some Italian companies want to maintain at national level few procurement programmes. Fourthly, the idea of European defence enjoys substantial support from the political establishment and in the public opinion, on both normative and realistic assumptions. For the mainstream part of the political spectrum this is still the case, despite the significant growth of euroscepticism in Italy as a result of the EU austerity policies during a prolonged period of economic stagnation, and due to the lack of proper European support as regards the extraordinary migration flows faced by the country in the last four years.

On top of these main reasons, the fact that the High Representative/Vice President Federica Mogherini is Italian has since 2013 served as an additional driver for Italy’s commitment to European defence.

It is therefore no surprise that Italy is one of the strongest supporters in Europe of PESCO, and has already prepared a number of proposals to be submitted under this umbrella, from the development of maritime capabilities, European defence training and education facilities, to initiatives in the sector of air and land forces. In this context a key point for Italian policy-makers and stakeholders is to join the Franco-German core group at the political, military and industrial level. In a post-Brexit Union, this is perceived – in strategic terms – as the only game in town. At the same time, Italy wants to adopt a realistically inclusive approach towards a truly European defence, by keeping open the core group of larger countries to other EU Member States willing and able to join it. 

"The fact that the High Representative/Vice President Federica Mogherini is Italian has since 2013 served as an additional driver for Italy's commitment to European defence"

Rome’s inclusion in the cooperation between Berlin and Paris would touch upon the joint development of a number of new capabilities, from the ongoing Eurodrone project to a possible new maritime patrol aircraft, main battle tank or future combat air system. The recent acquisition of French STX-Saint Nazaire shipbuilding by the Italian company Fincantieri may play a positive role in this regard, through enhanced bilateral and multilateral cooperation in the naval sector – first on civilian ships and then, hopefully, on military ones.

One of the main obstacles to Italy’s ambition to join Franco-German cooperation can be found in the Italian defence budget, that is stagnating around 1.1 per cent of GDP, and showing an imbalance between personnel expenditure on the one hand and investments and operational costs on the other, in favour of the former. The desirable increase in both size and quality of Italian defence expenditure will depend, among other things, on the willingness of the next Parliament to continue on the reform path indicated by the White Book on Defence and International Security adopted by Italy in 2015. Also given these enduring budgetary constraints, it is Rome’s point of view that PESCO should be supported by the European Defence Fund (EDF). It is not by chance that Italian representatives have been extremely active in the design and implementation of the EDF. 
As far as the Brexit negotiations are concerned, Italy is substantially aligned to the prevailing EU position, but it is simultaneously interested in keeping good relations with the United Kingdom in light of the strong bilateral links regarding the defence industry, in particular in the field of helicopters, avionics and electronics.

In this rather stable context, a political question mark is represented by the Italian general elections scheduled next Spring. According to the recently approved electoral law, two thirds of the seats in Parliament will be allocated on a proportional basis among the parties that have been able to gain above 3% of votes, with the remaining one third distributed through a first-pass-the-post voting system across more than 200 constituencies.

As such, the electoral law rightly encourages political stability and the formation of coalitions, but it will likely be insufficient to ensure a clear-cut parliamentary majority the day after the elections. The reason is that in recent years three political poles have consolidated in Italy: the progressive one, led by Partito Democratico, which has governed Italy in the last 4 years; the conservative one, with Forza Italia and Lega as its main pillars, which currently enjoys growing consensus; and the populist Movimento5Stelle. Unless one of these three poles scores an impressive result, it is likely that after the elections a gross coalition government will be formed by the mainstream parties of the progressive and conservative camps. 

Such a political process will probably diminish the activism of the Italian government in the first half of 2018, but it should avoid a scenario of populist take over. As the eurosceptic movements will probably stay in the opposition, their foreseen gains in terms of votes would not revert Italy’s position in favour of European defence. At the same time, the fact that military officials, diplomats, civil servants and the defence industry in Italy are more or less on the same page as far as European defence is concerned, would likely ensure a certain continuity at the working level, for example with respect to the PESCO and EDF implementation.

In a nutshell, because of the electoral campaign and then the process to form a new government, in the coming months we will probably see Italy keeping a lower profile on European defence as compared to recent years, but it will surely remain a steady supporter of its realisation.

1167 Comments

Load comments

APPLY FOR VERIFIED DOCUMENTS ONLINE -APPLY FOR FAST SERVICES
Mon, 01/11/2021 - 03:14

Permalink

APPLY FOR VERIFIED DOCUMENTS ONLINE -APPLY FOR FAST SERVICES IN REGISTERED PASSPORTS,SCAN-ABLE DRIVERS LICENSE,DATABASE REGISTERED I,D CARDS,SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBER CARD(SSN),GMAT,IELTS,SSN,DIPLOMAS,UTILITY BILLS,VISAS,GREEN CARD,RESIDENTS PERMIT etc. All This With Fast Shipping At https://fasteasydocs.com/ WhatsApp … + 1 (321) 999 1792/ [email protected]
Buy Driver’s License Online/Buy Real And Fake Documents online/Buy USA driver’s license/DRIVING LICENSE/Apply For Real And Fake Passport/Buy Fake Driver’s License for sale/FAKE DOCUMENTS ONLINE/Buy SSN for sale/

[u] Welcome to Fast Easy Docs Online

We produce genuine registered documents which are legally used and we also produce Fake or Novelty documents which are just use for camouflage and can not be use legally, these types of document (Fake Documents) are not important so we produce on high demand and order, We also work with agents from top embassies within the world who have all our clients information processed from within and have everything authenticated in the supposed database system. So everything we do regarding the production of a Genuine Passport, Drivers License, SSN, ID Cards, Birth Certificate, Visa, PR, Diplomas and many other documents are genuine and all the real documents that can be legally used.

ABOUT REGISTERED DOCUMENTS[/u]
1) Real documents are registered in the national database and contain all the applicant’s vital information.
2) Genuine documents comply with all the legal requirements imposed by authorities. They can be used for border crossings and other cases involving scanning procedures.
4) With real ID cards or driver’s licenses, you can apply for renewal when needed.
5) Genuine documents will cost more because they need to be registered according to the official requirements.
6) With all registration issues in mind, production of real documents takes longer.

[u]
ABOUT FAKE DOCUMENTS[/u]
1) Fake documents are not registered in any system. They are issued to a person for camouflage purposes only.
2) Although they do look like government-issued ones, false documents shall not be scanned by
data-reading machines as your personal information is not going to show up.
3) You cannot apply for renewal if your ID card or driver’s license hasn’t been registered previously.
4) As no paperwork is required for producing fake documents, they are priced much lower.
5) In most cases, your false document will be ready in a matter of days

CONTACT US
WhatsApp: ……… + 1 (321) 999 1792

Email :…………… [email protected]

General Support: [email protected]

Website:www.fasteasydocs.com

https://fasteasydocs.com/contact-us/ https://fasteasydocs.com/driving-license-i-d-card-form/

Buy Social Security Number Card https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy real driving license UK https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy EU driving license without test https://fasteasydocs.com

Quickest way to get driving license https://fasteasydocs.com

Fake driving license https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy real driver’s license https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy fake English driving license https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy genuine driving license https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy driving license DVLA https://fasteasydocs.com

Fake drivers license online https://fasteasydocs.com

Fake driving license https://fasteasydocs.com

Get bike license https://fasteasydocs.com

Fastest way to get a full UK driving license https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy fake id online https://fasteasydocs.com

Scan able fake id https://fasteasydocs.com

Birth certificate online https://fasteasydocs.com

Apply for birth certificate online https://fasteasydocs.com

I’ve lost my birth certificate https://fasteasydocs.com

Full birth certificate UK https://fasteasydocs.com

how do I get a copy of my birth certificate UK https://fasteasydocs.com

Instant bachelor’s degree https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy degree from any university https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy a degree/Verifiable degree https://fasteasydocs.com

Fake degree from real university https://fasteasydocs.com

Fake college diploma maker https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy a degree from a real university https://fasteasydocs.com

Fake diploma high school https://fasteasydocs.com

Fake diplomas that look real https://fasteasydocs.com

Fake certificates online https://fasteasydocs.com

Fake certificate maker https://fasteasydocs.com

Best fake money https://fasteasydocs.com

Where can I Buy Real And Fake Driver’s License Online https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy Driver’s License Online https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy 100% Fake Bank Notes https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy AUSTRALIAN DRIVER’S LICENSE AND I.D CARD https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy British passport online https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy real ID card online https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy Fake Driver’s License https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy German Passport online https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy SSN https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy US Passport online https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy ID Card Online https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy registered documents online https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy real documents online https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy registered passports online https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy documents online https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy German passport online https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy Danish passport https://fasteasydocs.com

buy-British-passport-online https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy US passport-online https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy Swedish passport-online https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy Japanese passport-online https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy Social Security Number Card https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy Real And Fake Documents Online
Buy Passports online
Buy fake documents online
Where can I buy fake passport
Buy real fake passports
Buy real and fake passport online

Genuine passports for sale
Purchase passport online
Buy UK driving license online

Easy Documents Online

passports online/

Counterfeit Documents

Real passport for sale/

Buy real ID

Buy Uk passport

Fake Uk driving license

False Canadian passport

Buy US fake ID card online

Buy novelty USA documents

Fake French passport online

Buy Real & Fake Documents

Buy Fake Documents Online

APPLY FOR REAL AND FAKE DOCUMENTS ONLINE https://fasteasydocs.com/
APPLY FOR REAL AND FAKE DOCUMENTS ONLINE https://fasteasydocs.com/buy-documents-online
APPLY FOR REGISTERED DOCUMENTS ONLINE https://fasteasydocs.com/buy-documents-onlinehttps://fasteasydocs.com/o…
APPLY FOR REAL DRIVERS LICENSE ONLINE https://fasteasydocs.com/buy-real-drivers-license-online
APPLY FOR REAL ID CARDS ONLINE https://fasteasydocs.com/buy-real-id-card-for-sale
APPLY FOR US DRIVER’S LICENSE https://fasteasydocs.com/buy-usa-drivers-license
APPLY FOR REAL AND FAKE DRIVER’S LICENSE https://fasteasydocs.com/buy-australian-drivers-license-and-i-d-cardaus…
APPLY FOR SSN ONLINE https://fasteasydocs.com/buy-ssn-for-sale
https://fasteasydocs.com/buy-documents-online
https://fasteasydocs.com/buy-real-drivers-license-online/
https://fasteasydocs.com
https://fasteasydocs.com/buy-real-id-card-for-sale/
https://fasteasydocs.com/buy-fake-drivers-license-for-sale/
https://onlinefastdocs.com
https://fasteasydocs.com/erase-criminal-records/

https://fasteasydocs.com
https://fasteasydocs.com/buy-documents-online/
www.fasteasydocs.com/buy-real-drivers-license-online/

‎Buy Legit Passports Online

BUY Real & Fake Documents Online That You Can Use To Travel
Best buy fake documents online
buy fake documents online
Passport online
Fake Passports Online
Buy documents online
Fake documents online free
Buy passport online
Buy real fake documents review
Valid documents online
Buy new identity documents
Buy real and fake passport online
Buy real documents online
Buy real and fake passport online
Buy real fake documents
Bake documents for sale
Buy fake passport online
Buy fake currency online
https://fasteasydocs.com/ buy-documents-online
https://fasteasydocs.com/buy-real-drivers-license-online/
https://fasteasydocs.com
https://fasteasydocs.com/buy-real-id-card-for-sale/
https://fasteasydocs.com/buy-fake-drivers-license-for-sale/
https://onlinefastdocs.com
https://fasteasydocs.com/erase-criminal-records/

https://fasteasydocs.com
https://fasteasydocs.com/buy-documents-online/
www.fasteasydocs.com/buy-real-drivers-license-online/
APPLY FOR REAL AND FAKE DOCUMENTS ONLINE https://fasteasydocs.com

Buy Real And Fake Documents Online
Buy fake documents online
Where can I buy fake passport,
Buy real fake passports
Buy real and fake passport online
Fake passport online maker,
Genuine passports for sale
Purchase passport online
Buy UK driving license online
Buy real driving license UK
Buy EU driving license without test
Quickest way to get driving license
Fake Bulgarian driving license
Buy real driver’s license
Buy fake English driving license
Buy genuine driving license
Buy driving license DVLA,
fake driving license
Fake driver’s license
Quickest and easiest way to get bike license
Fastest way to get a full UK driving license
Buy fake id online
Scan able fake id
Fake id maker online
Birth certificate online
Apply for birth certificate online
I’ve lost my birth certificate
Birth certificate prices,
CONTACT US
WhatsApp: ……… + 1 (321) 999 1792

Email: …………… [email protected]

General Support: [email protected]

Website:www.fasteasydocs.com

Irene Garcia
Mon, 01/11/2021 - 09:15

Permalink

viagra, paypal <a href="http://viashoprx.com/#">price 100mg viagra</a> best viagra sites online viagra online who takes mastercard <a href="http://xviagarrx.com/#">buy viagra online discover card</a> shipping viagra to australia cialis vs viagra <a href="http://viagraviagria.com/#">viagra vanessa hudgens oline</a> viagra patent ending viagra from canida <a href="http://asgenviagria.com/#">cheapest viagra online without prescription</a> free viagra samples canada how can i buy viagra in korea <a href="http://viagengen.com/#">buying viagra</a> 100mg viagra

Seo Company
Thu, 01/14/2021 - 12:05

Permalink

This time choose the Top Local SEO services with Reliable Seo Company in all over Singapore. A Company namely seocompany.me is leading with its top competitors in providing best Seo Services. People recommend us to others as they know we provide quality Google Ads Management services to manage the ranking of a website with bidding method. For any of the queries contact us anytime or visit our website or drop us a mail on [email protected]. To know more visit us -
Visit - https://www.seocompany.me/local-seo/
Visit - https://www.seocompany.me/
Visit - https://www.seocompany.me/google-ads-management-services/

where to buy viagra in ireland <a href="http://bestviagrx.com/#">sildenafil citrate (generic viagra)</a> viagra in the uk viagra expiration <a href="http://viarxhd.com/#">how to get online viagra paypal payments</a> online viagra montreal viagra dubai online <a href="http://viagetpill.com/#">free viagra sample uk</a> viagra australia overnight pharmacy 4 u viagra <a href="http://pillexrx.com/#">50mg generic viagra</a> walmart viagra price viagra onlline <a href="http://usggrxmed.com/#">where can i buy generic viagra online</a> viagra trial pack overnight

where to buy viagra in ireland <a href="http://bestviagrx.com/#">sildenafil citrate (generic viagra)</a> viagra in the uk viagra expiration <a href="http://viarxhd.com/#">how to get online viagra paypal payments</a> online viagra montreal viagra dubai online <a href="http://viagetpill.com/#">free viagra sample uk</a> viagra australia overnight pharmacy 4 u viagra <a href="http://pillexrx.com/#">50mg generic viagra</a> walmart viagra price viagra onlline <a href="http://usggrxmed.com/#">where can i buy generic viagra online</a> viagra trial pack overnight

Add new comment

Your name: Anonymous

Restricted HTML

  • Allowed HTML tags: <a href hreflang> <em> <strong> <cite> <blockquote cite> <code> <ul type> <ol start type> <li> <dl> <dt> <dd> <h2 id> <h3 id> <h4 id> <h5 id> <h6 id>
  • Lines and paragraphs break automatically.
  • Web page addresses and email addresses turn into links automatically.

Plain text

  • No HTML tags allowed.
  • Lines and paragraphs break automatically.
  • Web page addresses and email addresses turn into links automatically.