The challenge of a shared strategic culture in Europe
This analysis was originally published by the Atlantic Commission.
President Trump’s approach of withdrawing military forces from crisis areas – such as recently from Syria – has given new impetus to European efforts to intervene elsewhere in the world. To strengthen European defense cooperation, two years ago the French President Emmanuel Macron launched the European Intervention Initiative (EI2). His aim was not to create a new standby force, but to ultimately develop a shared strategic culture. A closer analysis of the differences between EI2 members shows the challenges confronting this shared culture-building ambition.
"The EI2 arrangement is supposed to be flexible, pragmatic and non-binding, as well as independent from any pre-existing institutional framework."