Photo: Hacker Warehouse, Santiago Zavala / flickr

Within the cyber security theme at Clingendael there is a focus at cyber threats from a strategic policy perspective. Issues such as attribution, resilience, deterrence, retaliation and international cooperation and norms-setting are central to our research agenda.

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PublicationsSecurity and Defence

Realising the EU Hybrid Toolbox: opportunities and pitfalls

14 December 2022 - 15:31

European and other nations have been increasingly targeted by different manipulation or coercion tactics that remain under the threshold of violence, and are commonly referred to as hybrid threats.

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Security and Defence
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The World in 2120

Europe/Amsterdam 10 2020